From: (Nicholas M. Stoughton)
Subject: Standards Update, A Report From The Chair
Date: 1995/06/16
Message-ID: <3rsf6e$>
X-Deja-AN: 104614552
approved: (Moderator, Sean Eric Fagan)
organization: USENIX Standards Report Editor
newsgroups: comp.std.unix

Submitted-by: (Nicholas M. Stoughton)

                      USENIX Standards Report Editor

          Nicholas M. Stoughton <>, Report Editor

       A Report From The Chair

       PASC, the IEEE Portable Applications Standards Committee,
       has been undergoing a lot of changes over the last year or
       two. The most notable have been the decline in
       participation, the completion of 27 standards (undoubtedly
       part of the reason for the declining participation), and the
       smaller, more focused projects which are now being started.
       There are more changes coming in the future, but I will
       defer reporting on them for the present.

       The primary topic of this report, and probably the most
       visible change, is the new organization structure adopted by
       the SEC (the Sponsor Executive Committee of PASC) at its
       last meeting April 27 in Irvine, CA. A reorganization of
       some sort has been in the works since the October, 1993
       meeting in Bethesda, MD. However, I think a little
       organizational history is appropriate before we get into the
       new structure itself.

       When PASC (then TCOS - the Technical Committee on Open
       Systems) was younger, there was basically a new working
       group created (with a chair on the SEC) for each new project
       approved. Once we had over six or seven groups we started
       assigning some new projects to existing groups and some to
       new groups.  If given to an existing group, it was usually
       because that was where most of the people who would be
       working on the project were located.

       As we grew larger, a significant number of projects were
       eventually going to either modify or amend existing projects
       or standards; the first and most complex case being POSIX.1.
       Special committees had to be created to coordinate the
       activities of the various working groups. ISO had defined
       three projects where much (but certainly not all) of the
       PASC standards would reside when they achieved IS status.
       They are:

         - 9945-1 System Application Program Interfaces

         - 9945-2 Shell and Utilities

         - 9945-3 System Administration

       IEEE then gradually began renumbering the PASC projects to
       better align them with their eventual ISO homes: for
       example, all projects that would end up in ISO 9945-1 were
       renumbered to the form 1003.1x where x was just the next

                                  - 2 -

       available letter in the alphabet. A complete list of all
       project numbers (old and new) is appended at the end of this

       We then had a very large SEC, with working groups that were
       not organized in the most logical fashion. As the PASC
       participation declined and many projects became smaller, the
       SEC became disproportionately large in relation to the total
       PASC membership. At its largest, the SEC had about 38 voting
       members, plus several non-voting liaisons, and other senior
       people who attended without an official vote. Generally the
       SEC meetings were attended by about 50 active participants
       (not counting non-participating observers) out of a total
       meeting attendance that had dwindled to about 120. Clearly a
       reorganization and restructuring of the SEC was needed.

       A reorganization was initially proposed at the October, 1993
       PASC meeting in Bethesda, and has been more or less hotly
       debated since then. We finally put out an official letter
       ballot to the then current voting members of the SEC.  The
       results were in before our April, 1995 meeting in Irvine,
       CA, which broke the issue into three main questions:

       1.  Should the basic reorganization happen?

       2.  Should the SEC Functional Chairs (formerly called Vice
           Chairs) be granted continued SEC voting status?

       3.  Should the PMC continue to exist? (The Project
           Management Subcommittee reviews projects and makes
           recommendations to the whole SEC, but has no absolute
           authority of it own).

       I have paraphrased these a bit for simplicity, but the
       ballot resulted in the approval of all three questions.
       However, it was generally accepted that the precise
       organization specified in the ballot was not perfect, and
       since this issue had been so contentious, I announced in
       January that the reorganization would not take effect until
       after the April meeting, and that motions could be made to
       "fine tune" the organization during the April SEC meeting
       itself. There was considerable debate, and strict Roberts
       Rules of Order were followed, but in the end, there were
       only three real changes made:

         - a very small number of projects were rearranged under
           the new working groups.

         - the office of Coordination Functional Chair was removed.

                                  - 3 -

         - the structure of the PMC was changed to allow up to half
           the members to be from outside the new SEC, and to allow
           the PMC Chair a vote on the SEC.

       The last point is particularly important since it allows
       PASC members who do not have a vote on the new SEC to have a
       significant voice in the project approval mechanism.  I
       sincerely urge people to consider participating through this

       After all this preamble, here is the new PASC organization.

                             PASC 1995 Organization
       System Services
                                 1003.1 (standard) 1003.1a (addendum)
                                 1003.1b (RT - std) 1003.1c (threads)
                                 1003.1d (more RT) 1003.1f (TFA) 1003.1h
                                 (SRASS) 1003.1i (corrigenda) 1003.1j
                                 (advanced RT) 1003.1k (Serial media)

       Shell and Utilities
                                 1003.2 (standard) 1003.2a (standard)
                                 1003.2b (more S & U) 1003.2d (batch)
                                 1003.2e (Serial media)
       System Administration
                                 1387.1 (SA Interfaces) 1387.2 (standard)
                                 1387.3 (User mgmt) 1387.4 (print)
       Language Bindings
                                 1003.5 (standard) 1003.5a (more Ada)
                                 1003.5b (Ada RT) 1003.5c (XTI) 1003.5d
                                 (sockets) 1003.9 (standard) 2003.5 (test
                                 1003.1e (system APIs) 1003.2c (S&U)
                                 1003.22 (framework)
                                 1003.0 (POSIX Guide) 1003.10 (Supercomp)
                                 1003.13 (RT profiles) 1003.14 (multi-
                                 proc) 1003.18 (POSIX profile) 1201.2
       Test Methods
                                 1003.3 (standard) 2003r (.3 revision)
                                 2003.1 (standard) 2003.2 (.2 & .2a TMs)
                                 2003.4 (RT TMs) 1326 (standard) 1326.1
                                 (standard) 1326.2 (standard) 1328
                                 (standard) 1328.1 (standard) 1328.2
       Distributed Services
                                 1003.1g (XTI/Sockets) 1003.21 (RT Dist.
                                 Comm) 1224 (standard) 1224.1 (standard)
                                 1224.2 (standard) 1238.1 (standard)
                                 1238.2 (standard) 1327 (standard) 1327.1
                                 (standard) 1327.2 (standard) 1351
                                 (standard) 1353 (standard)

       This table was purposely terse so that it could fit on a
       single page or slide. A complete listing of the PASC
       projects is provided as an addendum to this article for
       reference purposes. For those of you who are not yet

                                  - 4 -

       comfortable with the numbering changes, I have included both
       the old and new numbers of the affected projects, so the
       list looks a bit longer than you may have expected.

       One of the major ramifications of this new working group
       structure is the changes (both direct and indirect) in the
       SEC. Obviously the SEC becomes much smaller. However, it
       must be emphasized that the SEC meetings are open, so anyone
       may attend. It is my intention to allow everyone present the
       chance to speak, but I reserve the right to place reasonable
       limitations on the time a non-member may hold the floor.
       Besides the right to vote, SEC members are also the only
       ones who can make a formal motion.

       The new SEC has the following structure:

                        Voting Members of the SEC
       8   New Working Group Chairs
       4   SEC Officers (Chair, V.Chair, Secretary, Treasurer)
       3   Functional Chairs (Balloting, Logistics, Interpretations)
       1   Project Management Committee Chair
       4   Institutional Representatives (rotating membership)

       This yields a total of 20 votes in the reorganized SEC.
       However, one person is currently both the Vice Chair and
       Secretary, but only votes once, so there is effectively only
       19 votes. This is quite a change from the 36 to 38 we had a
       year or two ago.

       There used to be six Institutional Representatives (IRs)
       before the reorganization, but since the number of voting
       IRs cannot exceed 25% of the total non-IR voting membership,
       it had to be reduced to four. As stated above, we will
       continue to allow all IRs (and anyone else) to attend the
       SEC meetings, but only four will be allowed to vote. The IRs
       did not wish to select which of them would be allowed to
       vote, so the SEC held a ballot to determine the voting IRs.
       The two highest vote getters would sit for two years and the
       next two would have one year terms. Another election will be
       held in one year for the two expiring positions. The two
       expiring IRs may (and probably will) stand for re-election,
       but any other IR who so wishes may also try for the next
       term, which will be a full two years. Then every year we
       will hold another election for the two expiring two year

       The vote was very close, and in fact there was a tie for
       second and third, so a coin toss was used to select which IR
       would receive a two year term and which the one year term.
       As a result, Europen and X/Open won the 2 year terms, while

                                  - 5 -

       Usenix and OSSWG (a US Navy user group) received the one
       year terms. I wish to express thanks for the all the input
       and support from all the other IRs and invite them to
       continue to attend our meetings and stand for election at
       the April, 1996 meeting.

       It is our intention that the SEC will become mostly an
       administrative body with the bulk of the technical decisions
       being made in the new ``large'' working groups. Some people
       have dubbed these the ``super groups'', but that is strictly

       Another result of the reorganization is that the steering
       committees all disappear. Their work of coordinating the
       various interacting projects will now be done in the plenary
       sessions of the new working groups. A few special cases
       (such as testing amendments and security) will be worked out
       between the groups.

       It is our hope that these changes will result in faster and
       more efficient SEC meetings, but the primary benefits should
       be to reduce the administrative work that must be done by
       each project ``leader'.' Nothing was mandated, but it was
       suggested that each working group have a vice-chair for each
       project, which may effectively be the chair, or the
       technical leader for that project. With the new
       organization, only the eight working group chairs should
       have to deal with the paperwork involved in the standards
       process, thus leaving other people more time to do the
       technical work.

       Only time will tell how effective this new organization is,
       but it is an evolving process after all, and more changes
       are probably already looming in the future.

       Complete Listing of Old and New PASC Project Numbers

       1003.0       Guide to POSIX Open System Environment
       1003.1       System API - C-Binding (Standard approved 9/90)
        .1a         System API Extensions - C-binding (PAR revised 3/94)
        .1b         New # of old 1003.4 - Real Time (Standard approved 9/93)
        .1c         New # of old 1003.4a - Real Time Threads (Std approved 6/95)
        .1d         New # of old 1003.4b - Real Time API Extensions
        .1e         New # of old 1003.6.1 - Security API Extensions
        .1f         New # of old 1003.8 - Transparent File Access
        .1g         New # of old 1003.12 - Protocol Independent Interfaces
        .1h         Reliable, Avail, Serviceable Systems (PAR approved 9/94)
        .1i         Technical corrections to 1003.1b-1993 (Std approved 6/95)

                                  - 6 -

        .1j         Advanced Realtime Extensions - C (PAR approved 10/94)
        .1k         Serial Media APIs (PAR approved 6/95)
        .1 LIS      Language Independent form of 1003.1 (see P1372)
       1003.2       Shell and Utilities (IEEE Standard approved 9/92)
        .2a         User Portability Extensions (published with 1003.2)
        .2b         Shell and Tools - Corrections and Extensions (PAR revised 3/92)
        .2c         New # of 1003.6.2 - Security Shell & Utility Extensions (PAR 9/93)
        .2d         New # of part of 1003.15 - Batch Shell & Util Extensions
        .2e         Serial Media Shell and Tools (PAR approved 6/95)
       1003.3       General POSIX Test Methods (Standard approved 3/91)
        .3.1        Test Methods for System API (approved 10/92 - see 2003.1)
        .3.2        Test Methods for Shell and Tools (see 2003.2)
       1003.4       Real Time Extensions [published as 1003.1b] (Std approved 9/93)
        .4a         Real Time - Threads Extension [will be published as 1003.1c]
        .4b         Real Time System API Extensions [becomes 1003.1d]
       1003.5       Ada Binding to System API (9945-1) (Standard approved 6/18/92)
        .5a         Technical corrections to 1003.5-1992
        .5b         Ada Realtime Bindings (old .20 for .4 & .4a) (PAR approved 7/91)
        .5c         Ada Binding for Protocol Ind. Interfaces - XTI (PAR apprvd 10/94)
       1003.6       Security Extensions (original document split in 2 parts)
        .6.1        Prot, Audit, & Control Interface - Amend. to 1003.1 [see 1003.1e]
        .6.2        Protection and Control Utilities - Amend. to 1003.2 [see 1003.2c]
       1003.7       System Administration Interface [see 1387.1 - changed 10/93]
        .7.1        Sys Admin Print Management (PAR approved 1/92) [see 1387.4]
        .7.2        Sys Admin Software Administration (PAR app 1/92) [see 1387.2]
        .7.3        Sys Admin - User & Group Account Management [see 1387.3]
       1003.8       POSIX Transparent File Access Interface (see 1003.1f)
        .8a         Shell and Tools: TFA Utilities (PAR approved 1/92)
       1003.9       Fortran 77 Bindings to POSIX (Standard approved 6/92)
       1003.10      Supercomputing Appl. Environment Profile (Std approved 6/95)
       1003.11      Transaction Processing - Support withdrawn by SEC 4/93
       1003.12      Protocol Independent Interfaces - C [became 1003.1g]
       1003.13      Real Time Application Profiles
       1003.14      POSIX Multiprocessing Application Environment Profile
       1003.15      Batch Queuing Extensions (to be split, see 1003.2d for .2 part)
       1003.16      System API - C Binding to the LIS (PAR withdrawn 7/93)
        .16a        System API Extensions C Binding to LIS (PAR withdrawn 7/93)
       1003.17      Directory Services [replaced by 1224.2, 1326.2, 1327.2, 1328.2]
       1003.18      POSIX Environment Platform AEP (the ``minimum'' POSIX profile)
       1003.19      Fortran 90 Binding to 1003.1 (Support withdrawn 9/93)
       1003.20      Real Time Ada Bindings (PAR approved 7/91) [became 1003.5b]
       1003.21      Real Time Dist Systems Communications (PAR approved 3/93)
       1003.22      Guide to Open Systems Security Framework (PAR approved 3/93)
       1201.1       Interfaces for User Portability (support withdrawn 9/94)
        .2          Recommended Practice on Driveability
        .x          Direct balloting of X Library (never officially submitted)
       1224         OSI Abstract Data Manipulation - LIS (Standard approved 3/93)
        .1          OSI X.400 Messaging API -LIS (Std approved 3/93)

                                  - 7 -

        .2          Directory Services API - LIS (Std approved 3/93)
       1237         Support withdrawn by the SEC 10/90
       1238         Common OSI API
        .1          OSI FTAM API (PAR revised 6/94)
       1326         Test Methods for 1224 (Standard approved 3/93)
        .1          Test Methods for 1224.1 (Standard approved 3/93)
        .2          Test Methods for 1224.2 (Standard approved 3/93)
       1327         OSI Abstract Data Mn API - C Binding (Standard approved 3/93)
        .1          OSI X.400 Messaging API - C Binding (Standard approved 3/93)
        .2          Dir Services API - C Binding (Standard approved 3/93)
       1328         Test Methods for 1327 (Standard approved 3/93)
        .1          Test Methods for 1327.1 (Standard approved 3/93)
        .2          Test Methods for 1327.2 (Standard approved 3/93)
       1351         OSI API - ACSE & Presentation Layer (Standard approved 9/94)
       1352         LIS Test methods for 1351
       1353         OSI API - ACSE & Presentation (C-binding) (Standard approved 9/94)
       1354         C Language Test Methods for 1353
       1372         System Interfaces (old 1003.1 in LIS form)
       1387.1       System Administration Umbrella document
        .2          System Admin. Software (old # 1003.7.2) (Std approved 6/95)
        .3          System Admin. User / Group (new number of 1003.7.3)
        .4          System Admin. Printing (new number of 1003.7.1)
       2003         Test Methods for OSE (revision of 1003.3-1991) (PAR approved 7/92)
        .1          Test Methods for System API (Standard approved 10/92)
        .2          Test Methods for Shell and Tools (in recirculation ballot)
        .4          Test Methods for Real Time Extensions (PAR approved 1/94)
        .5          Test Methods for System API - Ada Binding (PAR approved 9/94)

Volume-Number: Volume 35, Number 37

			  SCO's Case Against IBM

November 12, 2003 - Jed Boal from Eyewitness News KSL 5 TV provides an
overview on SCO's case against IBM. Darl McBride, SCO's president and CEO,
talks about the lawsuit's impact and attacks. Jason Holt, student and 
Linux user, talks about the benefits of code availability and the merits 
of the SCO vs IBM lawsuit. See SCO vs IBM.

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