BSD, Linux, Unix and The Internet
 Path: gmdzi!unido!mcsun!uunet!elroy.jpl.nasa.gov!decwrl!ads.com!sparkyfs.erg.sri.com!zwicky From: zwi...@erg.sri.com (Elizabeth Zwicky) Newsgroups: comp.text.tex Subject: TeX Font Hints Message-ID: <1991Jun27.033419.866@erg.sri.com> Date: 27 Jun 91 03:34:19 GMT Sender: n...@erg.sri.com Organization: SRI International, Menlo Park, CA Lines: 905 Originator: zwi...@sparkyfs.erg.sri.com This document is somewhat out of date now, but nevertheless answers a fair number of the recent questions about fonts. Enjoy... TeX Font Management Hints By Elizabeth Zwicky , Scott Simpson . Edited, introduced, and augmented by Jerry Sweet See also The New Font Family Selection---User Interface to Standard LaTeX'' by Frank Mittelbach and Rainer Schopf in TUGboat, Volume 11 (1990), No. 1. Perl script contributed by Andy Fyfe This document is in the public domain, and may be reproduced freely, provided that this and all preceding notices are retained. 1. Introduction As an end user, if you stick to the basic stuff in TeX or LaTeX, you'll almost never need to mess with fonts much beyond that. Your friendly, smiling, helpful system administrator will have created all the fonts you're likely to need. $Revision: 1.3$ $Date: 90/05/23 18:54:11$ But every once in a while, a TeX document can't be printed. Why is that? Because one of the stupid fonts is missing! (There are other possible reasons, but missing fonts is the big gotcha.) How do you know it's a missing font? Because the printer driver or the previewer will complain that file cmssm9.746gf'', or something like that, can't be opened. What to do? What does it mean? Helllp! If you're a system administrator, and one of your constituents, in desperation about missing fonts, has his nose and upper lip flat against your office window, revealing coffee-stained, plaque-encrusted teeth, and smearing skin oil and saliva on the glass, what can you do? Okay, now that you've gotten all that screaming out of your system, sit back down in your chair and read this document. It'll tell you at least some of what you need to know to fix things, at least on a UNIX system. Please send complaints, corrections, additions, and suggestions to Jerry Sweet (address above). This note assumes that you have at least rudimentary knowledge of TeX, and some understanding of UNIX. 2. What Fonts Are Available TeX can use any fonts, provided that the appropriate data files are around, and provided that the appropriate TeX constructs have been defined. It just so happens that TeX is almost always installed in such a way as to use the set of public-domain fonts supplied with the UNIX TeX software distribution. These fonts are called the Computer Modern (cm'') fonts. There are other kinds of fonts, such as the Adobe fonts, used primarily by PostScript printers such as the Apple LaserWriter. Other popular fonts include the commercially available BitStream fonts. There may also be varying font cartridges installed on printers such as the Hewlett-Packard LaserJet. Such fonts cannot be used without extra effort on someone's part---mostly the system administrator's, but also on the end user's part. Font definitions such as for \rm, \bf, \it, \sf, and so on, are made in the file lfonts.tex'' for LaTeX, or in a file such as psfonts.sty'' to define PostScript fonts for use with LaTeX. (For purposes of this discussion, TeX and LaTeX are treated identically, except where LaTeX is specifically mentioned.) Some additional font selection abstractions are compiled into the .fmt files. The .fmt files are compiled'' macros, such as plain.fmt (used by Plain TeX) and lplain.fmt (used by LaTeX). The .fmt files are *not* compatible among different machines, or different releases of TeX. When you install a new release of TeX, or install TeX on a new machine type, you will have to redump plain, splain and lplain. The .fmt files are typically kept in a directory of their own, not with the font data files. 3. Font Data File Types A previewer or printer driver program requires fonts in one of these formats: gf (generic font), pk (packed), or pxl (pixel). TeX itself, as opposed to the drivers and previewers, is primarily interested in the height and width of each character in a font, not in the form of the character. As far as TeX is concerned, each character is a little square blob to be placed on the page according to the directions given. It is only after TeX has produced a dvi file, and it comes time to print the results, that the form of each character becomes important. The information about each character blob's height and width is stored in tfm (TeX Font Metric) files, one tfm file for every font used in the document. The tfm files are neither necessary or sufficient to print the document; the tfm files contain only information about the sizes of each character blob. Where do tfm files come from? They are produced by MetaFont from mf (MetaFont) files. MetaFont is a language for describing the shapes of characters and building data files for use by other programs, such as TeX, dvi previewers, and printer drivers. Refer to the MetaFontbook by Donald Knuth for information about that language. It is also possible to derive tfm files from PostScript fonts if you have the afm (Adobe Font Metric) files, using the afm2tfm program. Where do the afm files come from? From Adobe, or an authorized licensee thereof. There is also a program called gf2tfm that is used to produce tfm files from gf files. Where do the gf files come from? They are produced by MetaFont at the same time that the tfm files are produced. The kinds of font data files needed to see a document depend on the program used to translate the dvi file to a format for the output device. Examples of such programs include dvipage, to preview in a SunView window, and dvijep, to print on an HP LaserJet Series II. The previewer or printer driver may require pxl, pk, or gf files, depending on how old or how new the program is. Pxl fonts are obsolete. If pxl fonts don't exist on your system, you may have some trouble in creating them. They came from an old version of MetaFont, called MetaFont79. The MetaFont language definition has changed since 1979, so old MetaFont programs can't be used with the new MetaFont implementations. It is better to find newer programs that use gf files. The pk font formats can be produced from gf fonts using the gf2pk program; note that gf2pk takes only one argument. To process a bunch of fonts through it, use a foreach loop. 4. Where Font Files Are As a system administrator, you will have compiled TeX to use the font data files in /usr/local/lib/tex/fonts, or someplace similar. All programs that use TeX fonts, whether as pxl, pk, gf, or tfm, should look for them below /usr/local/lib/tex/fonts/something. Here are three possible methods for managing directories of font files: 1) Shove them all into /usr/local/lib/tex/fonts. Avoid this. You will end up with a directory too large to even think about. 2) Subdivide /usr/local/lib/tex/fonts by font (usually by the name of the .mf file from which the font files were produced, so that you have /usr/local/lib/tex/fonts/cmr12 /usr/local/lib/tex/fonts/cmr10 /usr/local/lib/tex/fonts/cmbx9). This makes for nice, small subdirectories, but has two problems: - not all programs can cope with it; - you may have two output devices with the same resolution but different marking engines, resulting in different font files with the same names. 3) Subdivide /usr/local/lib/tex/fonts by type of font file. For instance, put tfm files in one directory, pk files at screen resolution in another, pk files at printer resolution for one printer type in another. This will leave you with large subdirectories, and may lead to uncomfortable directory names (SRI uses /usr/local/lib/tex/fonts/300-write-black, for instance). On the other hand, all programs can cope with it. Most implementations of TeX will also check for tfm files in any directories specified by the environment variable TEXFONTS, e.g. setenv TEXFONTS /usr/local/lib/tex/fonts:/users/project/fonts (By convention, a ':' separates each path given in the string value of an environment variable.) System administrators should *never* define environment variables named TEXFORMATS, TEXINPUTS, or TEXFONTS, because that makes it very easy to install TeX so that it works only for the administrator (when, say, TEXFORMATS is correct, but the compiled path is not). Postprocessors like dvitool and dvi2ps differ in the available environment variables. Some of them use TEXFONTS, in which case if you wish to override it for the postprocessor you must be sure to include the system default for tfm files as well as the override for the files the postprocessor wants. For instance, if you have your own .pk files, you do this: setenv TEXFONTS /usr/local/lib/tex/fonts/tfm:/my/pk/fonts unless you also want the system .pk files, in which case it would be setenv TEXFONTS /usr/local/lib/tex/fonts/tfm:\ /usr/local/lib/tex/fonts/pk:/my/pk/fonts More sensible programs provide a separate environment variable (DVIFONTS, for instance). Less sensible programs provide no override at all. 5. Font File Names The gf, pk, and pxl font file names all have these general forms: . or . Example: cmr10.240pk Key: ::= font family, e.g. cmr for Computer Modern Roman ::= design size of font (the point size at which it looks best) . ::= magnification (means different things according to type) ::= data type, e.g. pk for packed'' format In the example above, "cmr" represents Computer Modern Roman. The "10" indicates that the font was designed to be printed as a ten point font. The size does not necessarily indicate that any part of the font is exactly ten points high. Fonts are normally designed with a particular size in mind. For example, although cmr10.300gf and cmr5.600gf are both ten points high on a 300 dpi device, the cmr5 font is a magnified five point font that looks crummy at twice its regular size. The version designed for ten points has its characters thinned out and looks better at the size for which it was intended. Some fonts look good at any magnification and have the parts of their files names omitted. The ways that font file names are selected are defined in several layers of TeX macro abstraction, but they eventually come down to external names with prefixes such as those below: family series shape(s) external names ========================================================== [Computer Modern Roman Family] cmr m n, it, sl, sc, u cmr10, cmti10, cmsl10, cmcsc10, cmu10 bx n, it, sl cmbx10, cmbxti10, cmbxsl10 b n cmb10 ---------------------------------------------------------- [Computer Modern Sans Serif Family] cmss m n, sl cmss10, cmssi10 bx n cmssbx10 sbc n cmssdc10 ---------------------------------------------------------- [Computer Modern Typewriter Family] cmt m n, it, sl, sc cmtt10, cmitt10, cmsltt, cmtcsc10 ========================================================== Key: cm = computer modern r, ss, tt = roman, sans serif, typewriter m, bx, b = medium, bold expanded, bold n, it, sl, sc = normal, italic, slanted, small caps 10 = design size: ten points TeX gets a lot of its fonts by using a font designed for 12 point at some other point size. It specifies these by giving what is called a "magstep". Font foo at magstep bar is font foo enlarged by 1.2 to the bar. Now, some things talk about font foo at magnification zot, instead of font foo at magstep bar. Magnification zot is 1000 at magstep bar. So: - cmr12 at magstep 0 is plain old cmr12 (1.2**0 = 1); this is cmr12 at magnification 1000. - cmr12 at magstep 1 is 1.2 times as big as cmr12 is; this is cmr12 at magnification 1200. - cmr12 at magstep 2 is 1.44 times as big as cmr12 is; this is cmr12 at magnification 1440. Now that you are totally confused, it is time to point out that the number on the end of the font name is not necessarily the magstep or the magnification; for pk and gf font formats it represents the dots per inch at the magstep. - cmr12.gf300 is cmr12 at 300 dpi at magstep 0 (magnification 1000) - cmr12.gf360 is cmr12 at 300 dpi at magstep 1 (magnification 1200) - cmr12.gf432 is cmr12 at 300 dpi at magstep 2 (magnification 1440) For pxl format, the magic number is 1000 times the true size at 200 dpi. This means that if your pxl font is designed to print at 200 dpi, - cmr12.pxl12000 is cmr12 at magstep 0 (12 * (1.2 ** 0) * 1000 = 12000); - cmr12.pxl14400 is cmr12 at magstep 1 (12 * (1.2 ** 1) * 1000 = 14400). If your pxl font is *not* designed to print at 200 dpi, life is much more interesting; all you have to do is figure out what size it would be when printed at 200 dpi, so that - cmr12.pxl6000 is cmr12 at magstep 0 at 100 dpi (100 is half of 200, so a 12 point font with 100 dots per inch printed at 200 dots per inch should be a 6 point font, and 6 * (1.2 ** 0) * 1000 = 6000). God save you from having to calculate this for 72 dpi!) Two notes: You will want a table of magnification and extension numbers for various magsteps if you have to do much of this, especially if you are dealing with half magsteps. You will also need to realize that MetaFont's arithmetic is not always perfect, so, for instance, cmr12 at 300 dpi at magstep 8 should be cmr12.gf1290 by calculator, but any extension between about 1285 and about 1295 could be expected. An example of such a table for normal font magnifications is: MetaFont magnification reason 150 .5 half size 208 .69444 -\magstep2 250 .83333 -\magstep1 274 .91287 -\magstephalf 300 1.0 normal size 329 1.09544 \magstephalf 360 1.2 \magstep1 432 1.44 \magstep2 450 1.5 1.5 * normal size 518 1.728 \magstep3 600 2.0 twice normal size 622 2.0736 \magstep4 746 2.48832 \magstep5 To create the gf files, run the MetaFont program on an mf (MetaFont) file. The names of the mf files do not necessarily require the .mf extension. The files define sizes and outlines independent of the dots-per-inch that your printer or graphics device can print. All you have to do is figure out the magic incantation to turn zot.mf into zot.gfwhatever. That incantation is cmmf '\mode:=foo;' '\mag:=magstep(bar);' '\batchmode;' input zot The \mode entry says what the printer looks like. Some sites have cmmf preload a definition for various modes'' such as "screenfont" (72 dpi) and "dplzr" (300 dpi write-white). It automatically knows about "lowres" (200 dpi write-black). NOTE: Not all printers use the same mode, even if they are all 300 dots-per-inch (dpi) printers. For example, the DataProducts laser printer creates a negative'' (it marks all the places on the page black except those that should be white)---it's a write-white printer; while the Apple LaserWriter marks all the places on the page that should be black---it's a write-black printer. All printers mark more area than they should, with the result that a write-white printer makes fonts skinnier than they should be, and a write-black printer makes fonts fatter than they should be. The same tfm files may be used for write-black and write-white printers although the gf files may differ. The widths in a tfm file are simply scaled if you magnify a font, so the same tfm file is written no matter what magnification you give to MetaFont. Consequently, there is only one tfm file for every font although there may be many gf files at different magnifications. 6. PostScript Fonts Metafont and PostScript both store descriptions of fonts as outlines. However, the normal way to design fonts for the two languages differ. It is traditional to design separate MetaFont definitions for fonts at different sizes, while it is traditional to make a single PostScript definition with instructions on how to modify it for different sizes. (The MetaFont theory is more classical, and will produce more beautiful fonts, especially at extreme sizes. The PostScript theory is easier to use in practice, and quite satisfactory, particularly in normal text sizes.) A scaled 10 point PostScript cmr font scaled to 12 points is not the same as a 12 point cmr MetaFont font because fonts normally do not scale proportionally. To use PostScript fonts, you need: - tfm files for the PostScript/Adobe fonts; - a dvi printer driver that knows about using fonts in the printer (instead of rolling its own); - a printer with the desired fonts; - appropriate TeX font selection code. The dvi2ps program creates TeX-encoded fonts out of PostScript fonts under new names (for instance, what PostScript knows as Times-Roman'', dvi2ps knows as trom''; Times-Roman-Oblique becomes tromobl). It insists on having the name of every font you are going to use from PostScript hard-coded into it; give it a name it doesn't recognize and it assumes that it should have a pk file, and substitutes the next one in alphabetical order if it fails to find one. This leads to fascinating failure modes, as the font which alphabetically follows *all* fonts with PostScript names is the circle font. The program dvips (not to be confused with psdvi) can also use the resident PostScript fonts, and there are yet other DVI to Postscript drivers available commercially or in the public domain. The problem of telling TeX to use PostScript fonts can be solved in any of several ways, two of which are: 1. Edit the font calls in lfonts.tex (for LaTeX), plain.tex (for TeX), or sfonts.tex (for SliTeX), dump a new .fmt file and make a new shell script that uses the appropriate .fmt file. 2. Obtain or write a LaTeX document style option to override the definitions that were present in the lfonts file. This buys you nothing in Plain TeX, which doesn't know about LaTeX document styles, and may do nothing for you in SliTeX. 7. Font Declarations in LaTeX If you want to use a font that is not preloaded, you will need to declare it. If you already have a pk file, you can calculate from its name how to declare the font in several ways. First, you can figure what magstep it is at, and use that. For instance, to make "bigfont" be cmr10 at magstep5: \newfont{\bigfont}{cmr10 scaled \magstep 5} You can also use the magnification, which you can calculate from the extension with the equation 5 * r / 1.5, where r is the resolution (e.g. 300 or 600 dpi). For example, if the largest cmr10 font is cmr10.746gf (i.e. \magstep5), then you can declare this font in TeX with: \newfont{\bigfont}{cmr10 scaled 2487} Finally, you can declare it by the size at which it will print out, which you can calculate from the extension with the equation d * r / 300, where d is the design size (e.g. 10 or 12), and r is the resolution as previously. For example, you could also declare the same cmr10 font with: \newfont{\bigfont}{cmr10 at 24.866pt} 8. More About MetaFont Metafont is installed much like TeX; mf and cmmf are shell scripts which call virmf on /usr/local/lib/mf/bases/plain.base (for example) and /usr/local/lib/mf/bases/cmplain.base, respectively. The base files are created by using inimf on .mf files, which are stored in /usr/local/lib/mf/inputs. The difference between mf and cmmf is that cmmf has the information on which all the Computer Modern fonts are based in the base file. Some versions of the cmmf program are rumored to work incorrectly on some CMR fonts. An example of a MetaFont local.mf file appropriate for a 300 dpi Imagen printer might be: mode_def imagen = % Imagen 8/300 mode (Canon engine) proofing := 0; % no, we're not making proofs fontmaking := 1; % yes, we're making a font tracingtitles := 0; % no, don't show titles in the log pixels_per_inch := 300; blacker := 0; % Canon engine is black enough, fillin := .2; % and it tends to fill in diagonals. o_correction := .6; enddef; localfont:=imagen; You should be sure to load a local file when creating cmmf, and you should be sure that that local file contains a definition for localfont, unless you want to by default create fonts for a 200 dpi printer. If no magnification is done, the extension on the gf file name will be the sames as the pixels_per_inch for the mode you used. If you get a .2602gf file, you have used a bad mode, or have not specified a mode, and it has reverted to its default proofing mode. You should check the extensions to make certain that you are indeed getting the resolution you intended. The parameters blacker, fillin, and o_correction are used to turn on or off a small number of bits on certain characters to account for the discrepancies between write-white and write-black print engines. Such discrepancies are somewhat noticable at 300 dpi, more so at lower resolutions, and less so at higher resolutions. A sample MetaFont run involving the local.mf given above might be: mf '\mode := localfont;' input cmr10 This creates the Computer Modern Roman 10 point font for the 300 dpi Imagen. As MetaFont runs, the collating sequence number of each character generated is displayed. At the end of the run, three files will have been created: cmr10.log, cmr10.tfm, and cmr10.300gf. The gf file may be converted to a pk file by using gftopk. MetaFont has the ability to display characters on-line for certain types of displays. The terminals supported are site-dependent, but typically include SunView and X windows. 9. Other Sources of Information The UNIX TeX distribution originates at University of Washington; both it and back issues of TeXHax are available on june.cs.washington.edu for anonymous ftp. There are usually copies available on labrea.stanford.edu. The collections of style files are currently available at Clarkson, from sun.soe.clarkson.edu via anonymous ftp. Local copies of the style files are often installed in /usr/local/lib/tex/macros or /usr/local/lib/tex/inputs. TeXHax is posted to comp.text, and is very, very useful. Refer also to comp.text.tex. The most useful part of the LaTeX book is Appendix C. PostScript data and information may also be obtained from Adobe's automatic mail server. See Appendix C of this document. Appendix A. The makefont Csh Script. #!/bin/csh # This would probably be prettier in Perl, and could definitely use # some docs. Give it a fontname, a type of number, and number, and # it will create a font for your default output device. "type of # number is "mag" or "magstep" for the magstep, "scaled" for the # so-called magnification (1000 at the given magstep) or "ext" for # the font extension. Given the error message "Cannot find cmr12 # scaled 1242", you say "makefont cmr12 scaled 1242" # Written by Elizabeth D. Zwicky, ITSTD, SRI International # (zwi...@itstd.sri.com) set offbyone = 0 if ($#argv == 4) then set device =$1 set font = $2 set ntype =$3 set number = $4 else if ($#argv == 3) then set device = "localfont" set font = $1 set ntype =$2 set number = $3 else echo "Usage: makefont [device] font numbertype number" exit (1) endif endif switch ($device) case localfont: case imagen: set resolution = 300 breaksw case dvitool: set resolution = 110 breaksw default: echo "Unknown device: $device Use device imagen or dvitool." exit (1) breaksw endsw switch ($ntype) case scaled: switch ($number) case 1000: set magstep = 0 breaksw case 1095: set magstep = .5 breaksw case 1200: set magstep = 1 breaksw case 1314: set magstep = 1.5 breaksw case 1440: set magstep = 2 breaksw case 1577: set magstep = 2.5 breaksw case 1728: set magstep = 3 breaksw case 1893: set magstep = 3.5 breaksw case 2074: set magstep = 4 breaksw case 2272: set magstep = 4.5 breaksw case 2488: set magstep = 5 breaksw case 2726: set magstep = 5.5 breaksw case 2488: set magstep = 6 breaksw case 3271: set magstep = 6.5 breaksw case 3583: set magstep = 7 breaksw default: echo "Unknown size$number" exit (1) breaksw endsw breaksw case magstep: case mag: set magstep = $number breaksw case ext: case extension: switch ($resolution) case 300: switch ($number) case 300: set magstep = 0 breaksw case 328: set magstep = .5 set offbyone = 1 breaksw case 329: set magstep = .5 breaksw case 360: set magstep = 1 breaksw case 394: set magstep = 1.5 breaksw case 432: set magstep = 2 breaksw case 473: set magstep = 2.5 breaksw case 518: set magstep = 3 breaksw case 568: set magstep = 3.5 breaksw case 622: set magstep = 4 breaksw case 681: set magstep = 4.5 breaksw case 746: set magstep = 5 breaksw case 818: set magstep = 5.5 breaksw case 896: set magstep = 6 breaksw case 981: set magstep = 6.5 breaksw case 1075: set magstep = 7 breaksw default: echo "Unknown size$number" exit (1) breaksw endsw breaksw case 110: switch ($number) case 110: set magstep = 0 breaksw case 120: set magstep = .5 breaksw case 132: set magstep = 1 breaksw case 144: set magstep = 1.5 breaksw case 158: set magstep = 2 breaksw case 173: set magstep = 2.5 breaksw default: echo "Unknown size$number" exit (1) breaksw endsw breaksw default: echo "Unknown resolution $resolution" breaksw endsw breaksw default: echo "Unknown numbertype$ntype" exit (1) breaksw endsw echo "Magstep is $magstep, device is$device, font is $font" echo "There will be a long pause while metafont runs." cmmf '\mode:='$device';' '\mag:=magstep('$magstep');' '\batchmode;' input$font gftopk $font*gf rm -f$font*gf $font*log$font*tfm if ($offbyone == 1) then mv$font*pk $font.${number}pk endif # END OF SCRIPT Appendix B. The makefont Perl Script #!/usr/local/bin/perl eval 'exec /usr/local/bin/perl -S $0 "$@"' if $running_under_some_shell; # The script takes font names, such as "cmr10.360pk", decides that, # at 300dpi, this font is at magstep 1, calls metafont, and then gftopk. # # Andy Fyfe # # # Usage: MakeFont [-c cmd] [-m mode] [-d dpi] ... # # is something like "cmr10.360gf" or "cmbx12.432pk". # The type must be "pk" or "gf". # The appropriate mag step will be worked out from the magnification # value in the font name and the dpi number (given below). # # newer metafonts, if linked to "xyz", will automatically load # "xyz.base". if so, then the command need only be xyz. if not, # then metafont must be started as "virmf '&xyz'". in this case # cmd can still be the just the base name "xyz" if you uncomment # the line with "virmf" in it below. ($prog = $0) =~ s/.*\///; do "getopts.pl" || die "$prog: Unable to load getopts package\n" ; &Getopts("c:m:d:") || die "Usage: $prog [-c cmd] [-m mode] [-d dpi] font...\n";$mf = $opt_c ?$opt_c : "cmmf"; # metafont command name # $mf = "virmf '&$mf'"; # older metafonts won't autoload base $mode =$opt_m ? $opt_m : "imagen"; # device type to make font for$dpi = $opt_d ?$opt_d : 300; # device resolution in dots per inch print "$prog: Using \"$mf\" to make fonts for \"$mode\" at$dpi dpi\n"; $tfmdir = "/usr/local/lib/tex/fonts/tfm";$gfdir = "/usr/local/lib/tex/fonts/gf"; $pkdir = "/usr/local/lib/tex/fonts/pk"; sub execute { local ($cmd) = @_; print "$cmd\n"; system "$cmd"; } chdir "/usr/tmp"; $| = 1; foreach$font (@ARGV) { ($base,$size,$type) =$font =~ /(.*)\.([0-9]*)(.*)/; if ($type ne "gf" &&$type ne "pk") { warn "unknown font type for $font -- must be \"gf\" or \"pk\"\n"; next; }$magstep = "none"; $mag = 1; for (0..16) { if ($size == int($dpi *$mag + .5)) { $magstep =$_/2; last; } elsif ($size == int($dpi / $mag + .5)) {$magstep = - $_/2; last; }$mag *= sqrt(1.2); } if ($magstep eq "none") {$mag = "'mag:=$size/$dpi;'"; } else { $mag = ($magstep != 0) ? "'mag:=magstep($magstep);'" : ""; } do execute("$mf '\\mode:=$mode;' 'scrollmode;'$mag input $base"); if ($type eq "pk") { do execute("gftopk -v $base.${size}gf $base.${size}pk"); do execute("rm -f $base.${size}gf"); do execute("cp $base.${size}pk $pkdir"); } else { do execute("cp$base.${size}gf$gfdir"); } do execute("cmp -s $base.tfm$tfmdir/$base.tfm || cp$base.tfm $tfmdir"); # do execute("rm -f$base.tfm $base.$size$type$base.log"); } # END OF SCRIPT Appendix C. The Adobe PostScript File Server Date: Thu, 17 May 90 11:22:49 PDT Subject: How to use the PostScript File Server From: Adobe PostScript File Server This message comes to you from the PostScript file server at Adobe Systems, ps-file-ser...@adobe.com. It received a message from you asking for help. The file server is a mail-response program. That means that you mail it a request, and it mails back the response. (Note: the server is entirely automated, and the mail is read by programs, not humans.) The file server understands these commands: help, index, send, path A command must be the first word on a line. More than one command can be sent in a message. (Though you shuld be very careful on the amount of data that is requested in a single message. See the long.help message; instructions below.) The Subject: line is treated as a message line. Any line that does not begin with a command is ignored. help Returns this message. All other requests are ignored. index Returns a list of categories. All other send requests are ignored. index Returns list files available under . send Sends you the requested file. More than one file may be requested, though most mail systems have a 100k limit on return messages. path Forces server to use as the return path. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- These are the current available categories: AFMFiles Documents PPDFiles Programs Updates To get more help, send another message to the server with: "send Documents long.help" CAREFUL: Do not send requests from "root" accounts. The server will reject them in order to prevent long mail loops when mail bounces. Several short requests always work better than one large request. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Thanks for your inquiry, and good luck using the server. If you can't get it to work at all, you can try sending mail to: ps-file-per...@adobe.com Mail to that account will be sent to a person instead of a program.
  SCO's Case Against IBM November 12, 2003 - Jed Boal from Eyewitness News KSL 5 TV provides an overview on SCO's case against IBM. Darl McBride, SCO's president and CEO, talks about the lawsuit's impact and attacks. Jason Holt, student and Linux user, talks about the benefits of code availability and the merits of the SCO vs IBM lawsuit. See SCO vs IBM.
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