From: bos...@toe.CS.Berkeley.EDU (Keith Bostic)
Newsgroups: comp.unix.bsd,comp.bugs.4bsd
Subject: 4.4BSD Release
Date: 29 Jun 1993 21:57:39 GMT
Organization: University of California, Berkeley
Lines: 529
Message-ID: <20qdsj$>

                                                June 1, 1993

Dear Colleague:

     We are happy to send you  information  about  our  June
1993  release  of  4.4BSD.   This  distribution is the final
release that will be done by the Computer  Systems  Research
Group  (CSRG).  For details on the demise of CSRG, see ``The
End of BSD from Berkeley'' below.

     This distribution is intended to be used on  production
systems;  it  has been run extensively at several test sites
and has proven to be stable and reliable.  However,  because
of the shutdown of the CSRG, there will not be anyone avail-
able at Berkeley to assist with problems, so it  should  not
be  used by sites without enough local expertise to find and
fix any problems that are encountered.

     The code in this distribution may be redistributed  and
used in released products provided that you abide by the due
credit requirements listed in your  license  agreement.   We
have  attempted  to  make  the  system as compliant with the
POSIX 1003.1 and 1003.2 standards as  was  possible  at  the
time  of  its  release.   We  have  not  been able to run it
through any of  the  verification  test  suites,  thus,  you
should  not  claim  conformance with either standard without
first validing the code.

     We  had  planned  on  releasing  two  versions  of  the
software,  4.4BSD-Encumbered and 4.4BSD-Lite.  Currently, we
are releasing only 4.4BSD-Encumbered.  The 4.4BSD-Encumbered
distribution is available only to  sites with UNIX/32V, Sys-
tem III, or System V source licenses with Western  Electric,
American  Telephone  and  Telegraph  (AT&T), or UNIX Systems
Laboratories (USL).  The 4.4BSD-Encumbered distribution is a
complete distribution in the style of  4.3BSD  and  contains
the complete source for the Berkeley Distribution.

     The 4.4BSD-Lite distribution was to have been a distri-
bution  that was copyrighted by the University of California
and others, but could be freely redistributed.   It  was  to
have  been  available  to  anyone  and  require  no previous
license, either  from  USL/Novell  or  The  Regents  of  the
University of California.  Its license agreement and content
would have been similar to that of the  two  BSD  Networking
Releases.   However,  USL  has brought a lawsuit against the
University and the University  has  voluntarily  decided  to
withhold  the  distribution of 4.4BSD-Lite until the lawsuit
is resolved.

     The enclosed information is designed to serve two  pur-
poses.   The  first  purpose  is  to  acquaint  you with the
details of our distribution so you can  decide  whether  you
would like to receive it.  The second purpose is to tell you
how to obtain our distribution.

What is 4.4BSD?

     This software distribution is provided on  one  6250bpi
1/2''  9-track  tape  or one 8mm Exabyte cassette only.  The
4.4BSD-Encumbered distribution contains complete  source  as
well  as  binaries  for one of the following three architec-

  +  HP 9000/300 68000-based workstations.

  +  DECstation 3100 and 5000 MIPS-based workstations.

  +  Sparcstation I & II SPARC-based  workstations.   Please
     note  that the SPARC kernel will not run on the Sparcs-
     tation 10.

If you wish to obtain binaries for more than  one  architec-
ture,  they  may  be purchased at the same time for an addi-
tional $500.00 fee.

     The distribution  supports  a  somewhat  wider  set  of
machines  than  those for which we have built binaries.  The
architectures that are supported in source form include:

  +   HP 9000/300 68000-based workstations

  +    Intel 386/486-based machines (ISA/AT or EISA bus only)

  +    Sony News MIPS-based workstations

  +    Omron Luna 68000-based workstations

  +    DECstation 3100 and 5000 MIPS-based workstations

  +    Sparcstation I & II SPARC-based workstations

The distribution does not include the  machine  support  for
the  Tahoe  and VAX architectures found in previous BSD dis-
tributions.  Our  primary  development  environment  is  the
HP9000/300  series  machines.   The  other architectures are
developed and supported by people  outside  the  university.
Consequently,  we  are not able to directly test or maintain
these  other  architectures,  so  cannot  comment  on  their
robustness, reliability, or completeness.

     The  major  new  facilities  available  in  the  4.4BSD
release  are  a  new  virtual memory system, the addition of
ISO/OSI networking support, a new virtual filesystem  inter-
face  supporting  filesystem stacking, a freely redistribut-
able implementation of  NFS,  a  log-structured  filesystem,
enhancement  of  the  local filesystems to support files and
filesystems that are up to  2^63  bytes  in  size,  enhanced
security  and  system management support, and the conversion
to and addition of the IEEE Std1003.1 (``POSIX'') facilities
and  many  of  the  IEEE Std1003.2 facilities.  In addition,
many new utilities  and  additions  to  the  C  library  are
present  as  well.  The kernel sources have been reorganized
to collect all machine-dependent files for each architecture
under  one  directory,  and  most of the machine-independent
code is now free of code conditional on  specific  machines.
The  user structure and process structure have been reorgan-
ized to eliminate the statically-mapped user  structure  and
to  make most of the process resources shareable by multiple
processes.  The system and include files have been converted
to  be compatible with ANSI C, including function prototypes
for most of the  exported  functions.   There  are  numerous
other changes throughout the system.

     The new virtual memory implementation is  derived  from
the  MACH operating system developed at Carnegie-Mellon, and
was ported to the BSD kernel at the University of Utah.  The
MACH  virtual memory system call interface has been replaced
with the ``mmap''-based interface described in the  ``Berke-
ley  Software  Architecture  Manual'' (see UNIX Programmer's
Manual, Supplementary Documents, PSD:5).  The  interface  is
similar to the interfaces shipped by several commercial ven-
dors such as  Sun,  USL,  and  Convex  Computer  Corp.   The
integration  of  the new virtual memory is functionally com-
plete, but still  has  serious  performance  problems  under
heavy  memory load.  The internal kernel interfaces have not
yet been completed and the memory pool and buffer cache have
not been merged.

     The ISO/OSI Networking consists of a kernel implementa-
tion  of transport class 4 (TP-4), connectionless networking
protocol  (CLNP),   and   802.3-based   link-level   support
(hardware-compatible  with  Ethernet*).   We  also   include
support for ISO Connection-Oriented Network  Service,  X.25,
TP-0.  The session and presentation layers are provided out-
side the kernel by the ISO development environment  (ISODE).
Included  in  this development environment are file transfer
and management (FTAM), virtual terminals (VT),  a  directory
services  implementation  (X.500),  and  miscellaneous other

     A new virtual filesystem interface has  been  added  to
the  kernel  to support multiple filesystems.  In comparison
with other  interfaces,  the  Berkeley  interface  has  been
structured  for  more  efficient support of filesystems that
maintain state (such as the local filesystem).   The  inter-
face  has  been extended with support for stackable filesys-
tems done at UCLA.  These extensions allow  for  filesystems
to  be  layered  on  top  of  each other and allow new vnode
operations to be added without requiring changes to existing
filesystem implementations.

     In addition to the local ``fast filesystem'',  we  have
added an implementation of the network filesystem (NFS) that
fully interoperates with the NFS  shipped  by  Sun  and  its
licensees.   Because  our NFS implementation was implemented
using only the publicly available NFS specification, it does
not  require  a  license from Sun to use in source or binary
form.  By default it runs over UDP  to  be  compatible  with
Sun's  implementation.   However,  it can be configured on a
per-mount basis to run over TCP.  Using TCP allows it to  be
used  quickly  and  efficiently  through  gateways  and over
long-haul networks.  Using an extended protocol, it supports
Leases  to  allow  a limited callback mechanism that greatly
reduces the network traffic necessary to maintain cache con-
sistency between the server and its clients.

     A new log-structured filesystem  has  been  added  that
provides near disk-speed output and fast crash recovery.  It
is still experimental in the 4.4BSD release, so  we  do  not
recommend  it  for  production  use.   We  have also added a
memory-based filesystem that runs in pageable memory, allow-
ing  large temporary filesystems without requiring dedicated
physical memory.

     The local ``fast filesystem'' has been enhanced  to  do
clustering  which  allows  large pieces of files to be allo-
cated contiguously resulting in near doubling of  filesystem
throughput.   The  filesystem interface has been extended to
allow files and filesystems to grow to 2^63 bytes  in  size.
The quota system has been rewritten to support both user and
group quotas (simultaneously if desired).  Quota  expiration
is  based  on time rather than the previous metric of number
of logins over quota.  This change makes quotas more  useful
on fileservers onto which users seldom login.

     The system security has been greatly  enhanced  by  the
addition  of  additional file flags that permit a file to be
marked as immutable or append only.  Once set,  these  flags
can  only  be  cleared  by the super-user when the system is
running single  user.   To  protect  against  indiscriminate
reading  or  writing  of kernel memory, all writing and most
reading of kernel data structures must be done using  a  new
``sysctl''  interface.   The  information  to  be  access is
described through  an  extensible  ``Management  Information
Base'' (MIB).

     The 4.4BSD distribution contains most of the interfaces
specified  in  the IEEE Std1003.1 system interface standard.
The biggest area of change is a new  terminal  driver.   The
terminal  driver  is similar to the System V terminal driver
with the addition of the necessary  extensions  to  get  the
functionality  previously  available  in the 4.3BSD terminal
driver.  4.4BSD also adds the  IEEE  Std1003.1  job  control
interface, which is similar to the 4.3BSD job control inter-
face, but adds a security model  that  was  missing  in  the
4.3BSD  job control implementation.  Other additions include
IEEE Std1003.1 signals, FIFOs, byte-range file locking,  and
saved user and group identifiers.

     There are several new tools and utilities  included  in
this  release.  A new version of make allows much-simplified
makefiles for the system software and allows compilation for
multiple  architectures from the same source tree (which may
be mounted read-only).  Notable additions to  the  libraries
include  functions to traverse a filesystem hierarchy, data-
base interfaces to btree and hashing functions, a new,  fast
implementation  of  stdio  and  a  radix sort function.  The
additions to the utility suite include greatly enhanced ver-
sions  of  programs  that display system status information,
implementations of various traditional  tools  described  in
the IEEE Std1003.2 standard, and many others.

     We have been tracking  the  IEEE  Std1003.2  shell  and
utility  work  and  have  included prototypes of many of the
proposed utilities.  Because most of the traditional  utili-
ties  have  been replaced with implementations conformant to
the POSIX standards, you should  realize  that  the  utility
software  may  not be as stable, reliable or well documented
as in traditional Berkeley releases.  In particular,  almost
the  entire  manual  suite has been rewritten to reflect the
POSIX defined interfaces, and in some instances it does  not
correctly  reflect the current state of the software.  It is
also worth noting that, in rewriting this software, we  have
generally   been   rewarded   with  significant  performance
improvements.  Most of the libraries and header  files  have
been  converted  to  be  compliant with ANSI C.  The default
compiler (gcc)  is  a  superset  of  ANSI  C,  but  supports
traditional   C   as  a  command-line  option.   The  system
libraries and utilities all  compile  with  either  ANSI  or
traditional C.

     Work  has  also  progressed  in  several  other  areas.
Several important enhancements have been added to the TCP/IP
protocols including TCP header prediction and serial line IP
(SLIP)  with header compression.  The routing implementation
has been completely rewritten to use a hierarchical  routing
tree  with  a mask per route to support the arbitrary levels
of routing found in the ISO protocols.   The  routing  table
also  stores  and  caches route characteristics to speed the
adaptation of the throughput and congestion avoidance  algo-

     The Kerberos (version 4)  authentication  software  has
been  integrated  into much of the system (including NFS) to
provide the first real network authentication on BSD.

     This release includes several important structural ker-
nel  changes.   The  kernel  uses a new internal system call
convention; the use  of  global  (``u-dot'')  variables  for
parameters and error returns has been eliminated, and inter-
rupted system calls no longer abort using  non-local  goto's
(longjmp's).   A  new  sleep interface separates signal han-
dling from  scheduling  priority,  returning  characteristic
errors  to  abort  or restart the current system call.  This
sleep call also  passes  a  string  describing  the  process
state,  which  is  used by the ps(1) program.  The old sleep
interface can be used  only  for  non-interruptible  sleeps.
The  sleep  interface  (tsleep) can be used at any priority,
but is only interruptible if the PCATCH flag is  set.   When
interrupted, tsleep returns EINTR or ERESTART.

     Many data structures that  were  previously  statically
allocated  are  now allocated dynamically.  These structures
include mount entries, file entries, user open file descrip-
tors,  the process entries, the vnode table, the name cache,
and the quota structures.

The End of BSD from Berkeley

     For the following three reasons, the CSRG clearly could
not continue in its present form.

     Funding had become increasingly time-consuming and dif-
ficult.   We were spending more and more of our time obtain-
ing funding, time that we  would  have  preferred  to  spend
working  on  BSD.  As many of you are intimately aware, com-
puter corporations are actively seeking ways to reduce  dis-
cretionary  outlays.   Also,  as UNIX vendors have developed
their own research groups, the work of the CSRG became  less
necessary  to them.  Finally, making BSD freely redistribut-
able  resulted  in  fewer  distributions  sold,   as   other
organizations sold our releases for less money.

     Support within the University of California declined as
BSD  became less widely used internally.  Victims of our own
success, many of the features once found only in BSD are now
available from every vendor.

     The system has become too large and complex for a group
of four to architect and maintain.  In the last few years it
became obvious to us that we had to expand the size  of  our
group if we wanted to continue developing and distributing a
complete UNIX system.  Expansion was  impossible  given  the
external  funding  environment  and  the  space  constraints
imposed by the university.

     BSD has always been a community effort, and, as a  com-
munity  effort,  does not rely on a small group of people in
Berkeley to keep it going.  BSD will not go away,  but  will
live  on through the free software and commercial efforts of
many people.  We thank you for your support over the  years,
your  funding,  and,  of course, the software you've contri-
buted to make the BSD system what it is today!

How to obtain 4.4BSD-Encumbered

     To obtain 4.4BSD-Encumbered we require execution of the
Berkeley  License  Agreement  (6/92).   In addition, foreign
licensees must  execute  Addendum  Number  One  for  Foreign
Licensees   in   ordering  4.4BSD-Encumbered.   The  fee  is
$2500.00 for 4.4BSD-Encumbered.

     Because we are a research and development  organization
and  not  a  commercial  organization,  we make our research
results available for a small license  fee.   We  distribute
only  the  whole system ``As Is'' and cannot send individual
pieces of the system.  We are required by the University  of
California  to  have  a formal license arrangement with each
organization  to  which  we  distribute.  In  addition,  for
4.4BSD-Encumbered,  we  are required to secure a copy of the
USL (or AT&T or Western Electric)  Software  Agreement  with
your  organization  and  confirm  it  with  USL  before  the
software can be shipped.

     Specifically, for 4.4BSD-Encumbered,  we  must  receive
from  your  organization  the  following material before the
distribution can be sent:

  +  Two copies of the current  Software  Agreement  between
     your company or institution and USL (or AT&T or Western
     Electric) that authorize you as a source  licensee  for
     UNIX/32V,  System  III,  or System V.  Note that a com-
     plete copy of the  agreement  up  to  the  Schedule  is
     required,  not  just  the  cover and/or signature page.
     Letters authorizing additional CPUs are  not  necessary
     in this process; however, it is your legal responsibil-
     ity to obtain an additional CPU authorization from USL.

  +  Two original signed and executed copies of the Berkeley
     License Agreement (6/92) between your company or insti-
     tution and The Regents of the University of  California
     along  with Exhibit A properly filled out.  For Foreign
     licensees, there is an Addendum to the  License  Agree-
     ment  that  must  also  be  executed.   The name of the
     organization on the Berkeley License Agreement must  be
     the  same  as that which appears on the Software Agree-
     ment with USL  (or  AT&T  or  Western  Electric).   The
     Berkeley  License  Agreement (6/92) must be signed by a
     duly authorized person who holds a position that is  at
     the  same  level or a higher level of authority as that
     which appears on the USL (or AT&T or Western  Electric)
     Software  Agreement. Please have this person's name and
     title typed in the available space in addition  to  the
     signature.   This  license agreement applies to all the
     CPUs covered by the Software  Agreement  with  USL  (or
     AT&T  or Western Electric) that you have provided.  One
     signed copy of the Berkeley License Agreement  will  be
     returned  to  you  after  it  has  been executed by The
     Regents of the University of California.

  +  A check from a U.S. bank for $2500.00 must be  received
     before  the distribution can be sent.  Checks should be
     made payable to ``The Regents of the University of Cal-
     ifornia, Computer Systems Research Group.'' If you must
     issue a Purchase Order, together with your  prepayment,
     please  issue one that is blank-backed.  If this is not
     possible, insert and initial in the body  of  the  Pur-
     chase  Order the following clause: ``The terms and con-
     ditions of this Purchase Order are not accepted by  The
     Regents  of  the University of California.  The revised
     Berkeley  License  Agreement  (6/92)  prevails.''  Wire
     transfers are strongly discouraged.

  +  The attached Site Information  Form  completely  filled
     out.  Your copy of the signed 4.4BSD-Encumbered License
     Agreement will be sent to  the  person  listed  as  the
     administrative  contact.   The distribution itself will
     be sent to the technical contact.  All  information  is
     kept  confidential;  it is for our use in notifying you
     of important bug fixes and the availability of  4.4BSD-
     Lite  should  it become available.  Please note that we
     cannot ship to post  office  boxes;  therefore,  please
     have  the  technical contact's address supplied without
     use of a post office box.

     A checklist is included to aid you in  assembling  this
material.  All the above material must be sent to:

        Pauline Schwartz, Distribution Coordinator
        Computer Systems Research Group
        Computer Science Division, EECS
        University of California
        Berkeley, California 94720

Once all these items have been received and  are  in  proper
order,  the  distribution  will  be  sent  to  the technical
address listed on the Site Information Form.  We cannot pro-
vide  delivery  dates.   Once  the material is assembled and
packaged, the distribution is shipped by commercial carrier.
Order  of  shipment  will be based on time of arrival of the
properly completed paperwork and confirmation  with  USL  if
necessary.  Because of the differential in costs of shipping
outside the United States, we ask that organizations  beyond
the  North  American  continent  pay  the  collect  shipping
charges.  If the destination is one where  collect  shipment
cannot  be  made by the carrier, then advance payment of the
shipping charges will be required.

     The most expedient way to ensure that your full distri-
bution  is  sent  as  quickly as possible is to include in a
single package two original copies of the appropriate Berke-
ley License Agreement completed and properly signed (without
change), two complete copies of your USL (or AT&T or Western
Electric) Software Agreement, the appropriate check properly
made out to ``The Regents of the University  of  California,
Computer  Systems  Research  Group'' and a completely filled
out Site Information Form and to send this single package to
the address noted above.

     Please note that if you  modify  the  Berkeley  License
Agreement,  you  may  experience  a delay of three months or
more  before  receiving  an  acceptance  or  denial  of  the
changes.  We reserve the right to cancel your application if
we have not received the requested paperwork within 60  days
from the date it was sent to us.

Special Cases

     University of California Sites.  If you are a  part  of
the  University  of  California,  the following requirements
apply: To run 4.4BSD-Encumbered on any CPU, you must have  a
CPU  authorization  under  The  Regents of the University of
California  Software  Agreement  with  USL.   This  can   be
obtained  by contacting Pam True at (510) 642-6348 in Berke-
ley Campus Materiel Management for an application. A copy of
this should be sent to us.  In addition, the following items
must be sent to the Computer Systems Research  Group:  1)  a
letter  of  authorization  signed by the Director or Head of
Department requesting 4.4BSD-Encumbered,  stating  that  you
have  read  and  understood  the  Berkeley License Agreement
(6/92) and that your organization will abide by  it;  2)  an
IOC for $2,500.00; and 3) a Site Information Form.

     Government Agencies and Government Contractors.

  +  The U.S. Government has a UNIX Source  Software  Agree-
     ment  with  AT&T  dated  Sept.  1,  1975.  If you are a
     government agency operating  under  the  1975  Software
     Agreement, you do not need a copy of the aforementioned
     Software Agreement; instead you must  send  a  copy  of
     your  additional  CPU  authorization  from  AT&T.   The
     Berkeley License Agreement for 4.4BSD-Encumbered (6/92)
     should  be  signed  by the appropriate Contracting Off-

  +  Several government agencies  have  acquired  their  own
     AT&T  UNIX Software Agreement.  Here, we need a copy of
     this Software Agreement with USL or AT&T.  The Berkeley
     License  Agreement  (6/92)  must  be signed by the same
     officeholder (or replacement) whose  signature  appears
     on  the  Software  Agreement  with  USL  or  AT&T.  The
     government agency shall be identified as  the  Licensee
     in the Berkeley License Agreement (6/92).

  +  If you are a contractor  of  the  Government  and  have
     obtained  an  additional  CPU authorization from USL or
     AT&T for  your  contract  work,  the  Berkeley  License
     Agreement (6/92) must be signed by the appropriate Con-
     tracting Officer  for  the  contract.   The  contractor
     should  address  a  letter  to  the Contracting Officer
     stating that the contractor  agrees  to  abide  by  the
     terms  and conditions of the Berkeley License Agreement
     (6/92) for 4.4BSD and ask that the Contracting  Officer
     sign  the Berkeley License Agreement (6/92) for 4.4BSD.
     The Contracting Officer should then return  the  signed
     Berkeley  License Agreement (6/92) directly to the Com-
     puter Systems Research Group with a cover letter  stat-
     ing that the contractor is hereby authorized to receive
     a copy of 4.4BSD-Encumbered.

A Special Note

     The procedures and rules set out in this  document  are
University and USL constraints that must be followed for the
distribution of software to be possible.  The Computer  Sys-
tems  Research  Group  has no control over these constraints
and must reject your application if  material  submitted  is
not  in  order.   If  you have questions about the licensing
process after reading this  letter,  you  may  call  Pauline
Schwartz at (510) 642-7780, write to her, or contact her via
electronic mail at

                         Sincerely yours,

                         Marshall Kirk McKusick
                         Research Computer Scientist
                         Computer Systems Research Group

UNIX, UNIX/32V, UNIX System III, and  UNIX System V are
registered trademarks of USL/Novell in the USA and some
other countries.

Ethernet is a trademark of the Xerox Corporation.

			  SCO's Case Against IBM

November 12, 2003 - Jed Boal from Eyewitness News KSL 5 TV provides an
overview on SCO's case against IBM. Darl McBride, SCO's president and CEO,
talks about the lawsuit's impact and attacks. Jason Holt, student and 
Linux user, talks about the benefits of code availability and the merits 
of the SCO vs IBM lawsuit. See SCO vs IBM.

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