From: "Philip Copeland (Sys Admin)" 
Subject: ANNOUNCE: FAQ for 0.98.5 ->
Date: Thu, 17 Dec 1992 03:43:38 +0200

well I've been doing proper work for the past while and ignoring the FAQ 
a bit but this should bring the FAQ up to date with linux 0.99 with
the first four tcpip patches for 0.99

this document is available on
in pub/Linux/Incoming as FAQ-NET-xxxxxx

The linux NET FAQ by P.Copeland (
quick disclaimer: I must appologize for my luck of a spoll checkr 
New to this edition:

	Help on how to select a 'driver' for your ethernet card
	and patch it into the kernel (actually done by Matt Welsh)

	Where to get the latest tcpip utils,

	Hopefully better explainations of whats going on for those
	who where still confused

NOTE:	as of this edition I have jumped from 0.98.4 to 0.99.1 and have
	gone to gcc-2.3.2 for compilations so some things may work for
	me and not for you depending on your kernel and compiler setup
	Also you should note that there are (at time of press) 4 tcp patches
	available both on and for linux 0.99

i)	Introduction 
Hello and welcome to the wonderful world of linux network communications.
Networking has always been one of the most exciting things that you can
coax a computer to take advantage of. It allows you to store/retrieve files
from remote machines (some of which are probably located in countries which
you'll never get to visit)
Networking also allows computers to interactively communicate with other
processes or users on these remote machines allowing a new social aspect of
computing to be approached (mainly in the form of talk or MUD (multi User
Dimension) sessions).
Networking also has many stumbling blocks for the administrator to fall
over, most notably the initial setting up of a system network which can
send the most sane person to eating the proverbial hat through the hell of
trying to coax their machines into networking life.
This FAQ is designed to help you start into networking in a positive
direction by leading you simply through the network configuration that best
suits you, whether you are a single machine with no network attachment
(silly I know) or a multi billion credit networking environment of your
country's local stock exchange. Please note that this FAQ does not follow
the 'normal' format of other FAQ's as it's designed to teach you networking
and it's idiosyncacies
ii)	What you NEED to get started 
To use TCP/IP on local ethernet you will need the following 
	1)	A linux machine with linux kernel 0.98.5 although I'd
		recommend going all the way to 0.99 as many tcp/ip errors
		have been stomped out (although not all). Users of the
		virgin 0.98.6 release will have to apply patches 1-12
		available on
	2)	An ethernet card, now by default the kernel assumes that
		you have a WD80[0/1]3 but there are other 'drivers' available
 		for the following cards :-

		wd8013		\
		wd8003		 >-- These will work by default with the kernel
		SMC Elite 16	/
		3com503 EtherlinkII

		These are available from and a bit further
		on I'll explain how to incorperate them (although having a
		wd8013 I don't have any prectical experiance of it, I'm relying
		on postings and email)

	3)	If you are only going to use 'loopback' mode, you won't need
		a card either! A special loopback device is used to comunicate
		with yourself 
	4)	Some tcp/ip software eg telnet/ftp/talk/finger/rcp/ 
		rsh/various other stuff like daemons etc... 
		You can get most if the networking stuff from :-

		Linux 0.99 now comes with nfs as a standard filesystem,
		but you will have to recompile or get a new mount command
		to use it if 'mount -t nfs csd:/very/private/area /mnt' fails
		there should be one already compiled in the nfs-client package
	5)	Know the IRQ's of your internal cards. This is to avoid
		conflicts and allow the 'drivers' to communicate with your

	6)	Also, If you do have ethernet cable, both coax (thin and thick)
		as well as twisted pair will work, the cable is only there to
		carry signals, your ethernet board works out how and the linux
		'drivers' simply stuff data onto the card.

	7)	A lot of coffee and one of those stress relieving 
		gadgets you can get in the local market. 
iii)	Where to start 
First off you'll need to rebuild the kernel with networking compiled into
the linux kernel. You do this by removing the '#'s in linux/net/Makefile
on lines 13,14 and 26 if they haven't already been removed. Next you'll
need to calibrate your network card. Decide what IRQ setting you'll need
for the network card.
	Anyway for those who are frexible, the standard kernel parameters
for this are :-
	INT		=	5 
	mem		=	D0000 
	i/o addr	=	280 
	memory start	=	D0000 
	memory end	=	D2000	( 8K block for 8003, make it D4000 
					  16k for the wd8013 ) 

	INT		=	card interupt, usually selectable between 2-7
	mem		=	where in memory to start stuffing data
	i/o addr	=	low level communications to the board
	memory start	=	nearly all boards have a jumper for mem starts
				C8000 CC000 CD000 D0000 D2000 D4000 etc
	memory end	=	in the case of the WD8013 this is a 16k buffered
				card and will have a memory end at D4000

 These can be changed on lines 12-17 (16,17 being the most important) of the
file linux/net/tcp/Space.c
*NOTE* If you have problems with the memory start addr, please get in touch
with bir7@EDU.Stanford.leland
Future versions of the TCP/IP code will be setable at boot time via
ioctl's. For those of you who do not have the wd8013 card, please refer to
the ethernet board documentation on the jumper settings you may have to

Now as I don't have another network card I am relying on other postings
for information on how to apply the other drivers, here is a better posting
I weeded out of the mailing lists which I feel should help those in need.
I'm sorry that I don't have any experiance of it but thats life. It's
specific to the ne2000 card but should also aply to the 3com and ne1000 cards


	From: mdw@db.TC.Cornell.EDU (Matt Welsh)

	[stuff deleted about getting utils etc]

	---- Now, before you build the kernel, you need to install the
	  NE2000 driver stuff (this doesn't apply if you're not going to use
	  an NE2000, NE1000, or 3c503 ethernet card). Omit the following steps
	  if you're just using the wd8003 card (or no card at all).

	---- Got the 8390 driver code. This driver runs the ne2000, ne1000, and
	  3c503 cards. It is in alpha, mail if you are
	  Got the files 8390.c, 8390.h, 3c503reg.h, and Space.c, put them all in
	  /usr/src/linux/net/tcp. Note that this Space.c overwrites your old

	---- Edited Space.c to change value of EI8390_IRQ. Also changed the 
	  #ifdef for the WD8003 card to something like
	  #ifdef I_HAVE_NE2000_INSTEAD
	  so that the wd8003 driver wouldn't get put in. I hear it causes
	  problems with the ne2000 if you set them both for IRQ5. 

	---- Edited /usr/include/linux/config.h and took out 
     	  to force use of instead.

	---- Edited /usr/include/linux/ and added
	  #define EI8390 0x300 /* base address */
	  #define EI8390_IRQ 5 /* irq of card */
	  #define EI_DEBUG 2 /* debug level */.

	---- Edited /usr/src/linux/net/tcp/Makefile and added '8390.o' to OBJS.

	---- Edited /usr/etc/inet/ to config "eth_if" instead of "eth0".

*** (Phil: shouldn't be putting it here but it's part of the same message) ***

Now, it's not really that simple. There are numerous caveats. The main
one is: telnet and telnetd don't work. You can probably telnet out to
other machines okay, but telnetd is broken so you can't telnet to your
own machine. The fix? There is a new version of telnet and telnetd, which
are feature-laden and so far have worked great for me. They are in ALPHA,
but supposedly are to be released with a new TCP/IP package soon.

So, if you have problems telnetting into your machine, then you need
the new telnet. You'll know if you telnet to you own machine, it says
"connected to... whatever" and then closes the connection. If you don't
even get a connection, then things aren't set up right. 

If you somehow have Pete Chown's new telnet, there are still bugs in telnetd,
which are fixed by an even newer version. All of this is to be released soon
so hold on. If you're really clamoring for a working telnet and telnetd,
talk to me. But the new binaries should be out soon.

NOTE: If you're only configuring for loopback you need to take out
the line in that runs config on eth0. 

NOTE! SLS puts the TCP/IP stuff in /usr/inet instead of the right place
(/usr/etc/inet). If you can't seem to get things to work, make sure these
files are in the right place.

If you have any problems, just mail me ( I'll be glad
to try and help. I hope I haven't forgotten anything. As long as you
set up everything in the canonical way it should work.

I think this is pretty complete. There are lots of problems, but 
GO SLOW, make sure everything's setup right in all of your configuration
files (esp., inetd.conf, services, hosts, resolv.conf, and so on).
Take notes while you do all of this stuff. Note anything out of the
ordinary. This will help GREATLY if you have inevitable problems and have
to ask others for help. 

Good luck!


Right, compile the kernel (You may need to do a 'make clean dep Image' or
if you have just gone to 0.99, 'touch .config;make config;make dep Image').
and hopefully on the next reboot with the new kernel it should detect your
card telling you of the ethernet number it is, and also that a new family
of sockets (AF_INET) are available.

If your card is incorrectly installed (I know you wouldn't) it could cause
all kinds of errors to be reported. (eg missing jumper settings, thick
ether selected instead of thin, that kind of thing)
At this stage you have a kernel which supports tcp/ip via the ethernet
board in your machine but knows nothing of networking, that is where the
software in the tcpip suites becomes important as it is this software that
understands networking protocols. Linux 0.99 has the Network filing system
included by default (NFS) so you won't have to track down the nfs-server,
nfs-clients on the various ftp sites.
iv)	The tcpip-0.8.0/tcpip-0.8.1 suites (the history/differences) 
History of ethernet on linux (by Ross Biro (member of the League for 
Programming Freedom LPF)) 'cos I am not worthy, I am not worthy, I am... 
	In reality, I did almost all the work myself, and all from scratch.
The jump from slow ftp to the pace we have now was really just some minor
patches. This is how it really happened, including why I chose to switch to
Linux in the first place.

	Before I came to Stanford, I had already decided Unix was the way
to go and had a 386/20 running Microport Unix. (This was just before
Microport went chapter 11.(an American bankruptcy law).  At Stanford I had
the opportunity to connect my machine to the Internet (networks have always
interested me.)  Unfortuneately I couldn't get any sort of networking code
for Microport, so instead I bought Esix.  Esix had some networking
problems, but it was ok.  As of 3.2 rev d it had just learned to talk to
computers off campus.  I spent a lot of time porting networking code to
Esix and ran an anon ftp site for it.

	Then I heard about Linux 0.10.  Since my file system had been
damaged beyond the ability of fsck to do a complete repair (There was a
file in /lost+found with the name " /etc/something" which I couldn't get
rid of.  This was a file, not a subidirectory or anything.)  I decided to
back up everything, low-level format my drive and make a linux partition.
After repartitioning my hard drive, I discovered my backup tape was
unreadable.  At that point I made a decision.  Since I was going to have to
start over I decided to start over with linux.  I installed version 0.12
and decided to try my hand at kernel hacking.  I wrote a buggy version of
ptrace which Linus fixed and included in the kernel (Actually first he
included it, then he fixed it.)  By this time I was tired of switching to
DOS everytime I wanted to use telnet or ftp, so I grabbed the 386bsd source
(or is it bsd386) and copied the wd8003 driver.  Since It had to be
rewritten to work with Linux and I had no clue what it was doing, I
introduced many bugs, but it worked well enough to telnet and ftp out using
ka9q, so I uploaded it to tsx and posted something to the net.

	After a while I decided I wanted real networking code, and after my
experience with Esix bsd compatible sockets were the way to go.  About this
time Zorst was just completing the port of X and needed some sort of socket
library.  He wrote the Unix domain sockets leaving hooks to included other
types of sockets later.  Which made it unnecessary for me to worry about
the kernel/user interface.  After serveral hectic months where I moved in
with my SO, lost my internect connection and most of the reason for
writting the networking code, I finally had something that would let me
connect to and from a PC running Clarkson's telnet.  I managed to get
minamal versions of ftp and telnet to compile and released the first alpha
version of the networking code.  (The code was all written from scrach by
me without looking at the bsd code.)  The things like assuming all ethernet
boards are memory mapped was because mine was and I assumed that was the
cheapest/simplest way.  The ethernet board is not its own device because
that would have required debugging code that was not completely necessary.

	The first message I recieved about the code was how it had caused
the loss of someones hard drive (I've forgotten who, but It was one of the
testers who really deserves mentioning.)  After 3 or 4 releases with some
patches posted to the net channel in between, I began to get the first
glimmering of successes from Dirk Hondel (sp?)  who was probably the most
important of the testers.  He provided a lot of debugging output and
probably risked his file system more than once.  About this time Mitch
Dsouza(sp?)  began to complain that he couldn't even get the patches to
compile.  After a lot of working (and at least another release or 2) it
worked (sort of) on his machine and many others.  At this point Bob Harris
started fixing the wd8003 driver (which had suffered from my port from
386bsd).  And Russ Nelson at cymwr software began to tell me how other
cards worked, and some of what was wrong with my design.  Bob Harris also
wrote an icmp echo routine so you could ping your linux machine.

	 At this point 0.8.0 was released and I descovered the need for
slow start (remeber, I've never been able to test my code on the internet,
I've always had to leave that to others.)  Not too long after that 0.8.1
was released and my advisor discovered I hadn't gone away for the summer.
(Fortuneatly I had been thinking about math enough that he wasn't too upset
with my progress.)  0.8.1 was included in the kernel, but none of the
support code (mostly config.c) went with it.  The rest is mostly just bug
fixes and such released with every new version.
(Thank you Ross and a big hand from everybody for his efforts) 

Now an important hint, the config file from 0.8.0 isn't 'good' so please 
recompile the source 'config.c' from the 0.8.1 distribution and you should 
find that the protocol not supported message will evapourate. 


v)	The files that you should have and setup info 
Ok i'll stop blethering and start talking about hard fact files that you
should have and where they are supposed to be.
The 0.8.0/0.8.1 suites have reasonable enough documentation to get the
various working parts out into somewhere useful on your system, typically
/usr/etc/inet and /etc although there seems to be an increasing ugly
tendency to crowd it all into /etc by simply linking /usr/etc/inet -> /etc
Having followed the net install shell script you'll probably find that it
asked some questions that you hadn't a clue about,... well ok lets look at
	Enter IP Address for (your host) (aaa.bbb.ccc.ddd) 

Here you are being asked what network address you would like to be known
as. Ip address are unique numbers so as to identify your machine from
another on a multiuser network. Normally if you reside in the Internet you
will have a network address assigned by the NIC or your local network
controller and you really must stick to it since there is no room for you
to bugger up the network by using someone elses ip address. If you do not
have a connection to the Internet, you will have less of a problem although
it would still be a good idea to apply for a internet class c/d network
number depending on your setup.

IP numbers are typically of the 0-255.0-255.0-255.0-255 range so valid
answers are or, etc.  324.234.545.2 is
completely wrong.
	Enter Net Address for (your hostname) (aaa.bbb.ccc.0) 
Here you are being asked for your subnetwork address. This requires a bit
of explaination. Subnets are a "unit" of connectivity which depict how many
possible hosts 'live' on the same piece of cable as you do (typically this
never exceeds 253 on one piece on cable) a quick way of getting the
question right is to type in whatever you have for your ip address but make
the last number 0 eg if my ip address were, my 'safe' Net
address would be means the whole world and is probably
what slip people should use.
	Enter Router Address for (your hostname) (aaa.bbb.ccc.ddd) 
Wibble! Ok here what is being asked is if you have a gateway machine
through which IP traffic can be passed to the great blue yonder. We are
sneekily getting the routeing machine to do some hard work for us.  Routers
tend to have 2 ethernet boards in them with differing network numbers for
them so that they can 'bridge' between different numbered networks, eg you
could not talk directly to a ip address of from an ip address
of but a machine in the middle with two ip address
192,35.173.4 and can 'collect' the data from the network and transfer it to the network All
we have to do here is stick in the ip address of the local router in this
case it would be (clear as mud I know but it's as good as it
gets) If you don't have a router,... just stick in meaning don't
route anything.
	Enter Domain name for (your host) 
This isn't too bad, domain names are 'convenient' labels eg is
the domain name that appends to all the machines on site so that a sun
called csd would be known as This is so that you don't have
to know the full ip number of the host, it's more convient to call out a
semi inteligable name eg = but the 192.35.175 is
aliased to (University in the West of England, academic
community, United Kingdom) Again this should be given to you with a
registered ip address but for now you could put in '' it can be
changed later.
	Name Server for Domain (aaa.bbb.ccc.ddd) 
If you are networked to the local Uni/technical collage you're in luck and it
should be able to serve you with a name server service, find out from your
local network controller what machine distributes the service. If you are
unlucky enough NOT to have a nameserver, just stick in your own IP address,
you'll just have to run your own nameserver.
Ok time for a quick check of what you *SHOULD* have in /usr/etc/inet
config		- This sets up the ethernet ip tables 
inetd		- Daemon process that invokes other network daemons 
inetd.conf	- Configuration file for inetd about the other daemons	- The semi automatic script I just talked about 
named-xfer	- Used for updating the nameserver records 
named.reload	- used to load in the named 
named.restart	- user to stop and restart the named process		- a network rc file called from /etc/rc.local from /etc/rc
services	- a file specifying what 'port' numbers certain services are  
		  available on 
telnetd		- daemon for accpting incoming telnet requests
named		- the nameservice daemon 
Time for some explainations I think,... 

	'config' is a general do it all fix your ethernet board to your
local setup command. It was configured when you ran the script
and if you look at the file you'll see where it plugged in all the
IP stuff that you fed the script with,... a bit technical but otherwise
nothing to worry too much about provide that your original information was
correct. One thing though, I have found that it is best to edit the
file and 'hard wire' the ip addresses directly in rather than relying on
the grep search from /etc/hosts but you may disagree (personal preferance)
it's the only time that /etc/hosts is actually used as far as I can tell.
*** stop press *** 
Ross: That's a bug. It should be used if /usr/etc/inet/resolv.conf is
missing or there is no named running on the machines refered to by
resolv.conf.  However, it is low on my list of priorities, and probably
will not be fixed (by me) any time soon.
*** resume press ***

'inetd' is a daemon process that wait's for certain events to happen upon
which it will select which process to run eg if no network communication is
happening, only inetd will be running but if a telnet session is requested
by a remote machine, inetd will start running telnetd for that incoming
call to connect to.

Of much more intrest is 'inetd.conf' which has information about what
services to run and where to find them example
sevice name	ip/tcp/udp		run as				name 
|		|			|				| 
|	format	|	wait/nowait	|	program to run          | 
|       |       |       |               |       |                       | 
|	|	|	|		|	|			| 
telnet	stream	tcp	nowait		root	/usr/etc/inet/tenetd	telnetd 
talk	dgram	udp	wait		root	/usr/etc/inet/talkd	talkd 
echo	dgram	tcp	nowait		root	internal 
Most utilities will tell you what should be included in here should it
require editing for to make them run.
Now another file that comes to mind at this stage is /etc/protocols or
rather /usr/etc/inet/protocols (I've made the symlink 
/etc/protocols -> /usr/etc/inet/protocols)
	This file contain's information on what protocol is to be used
when the datagram packet arrives ie how it is to be treated.

	# protocols - standard well defined IP protocols
	ip	0	# internet protcol, pseudo protocol number
	icmp	1	# internet control message protocol
	igmp	2	# internet group multicast protocol
	ggp	3	# gateway -> gateway protocol
	tcp	6	# transmission control protocol
	egp	8
	pup	12	# PARC universal packet protocol
	udp	17	# user datagram protocol
	idp	22
	raw	255	# raw

There are aothers but these are normally never needed.
(NOTE: the /etc/protocols from the 0.8.0 distribution defines ggp to be 2
       which isn't the case)

If this file is missing or empty, you will never get any transports (ftp/telnet)
to work and will be told that there isn't any such protocol.

'services' is a file which informs the tcp/ip code what port number a
particular program will run on for example if you telnetted to port 7 on a
sun you would be connected to an echo service which would send back a
carbon copy of what you typed in but that service has a specially allocated
port number referenced in the /etc/services file of both machines
There is a complete standardized services file in circulation from Ross
Biro; it is included here for your sanity:
Ross: This is the one I made from the relevant rfc.  It has some typos and
such here, but it is probably ok for most use.
tcpmux		1/tcp 		# TCP Port Service Multiplexer 
rje		5/tcp		# remote job entry 
echo		7/tcp 
echo		7/udp 
discard		9/tcp		sink null 
discard		9/udp		sink null 
systat          11/udp          users 
systat		11/tcp		users 
daytime         13/udp 
daytime		13/tcp 
daytime		13/udp 
netstat         15/udp 
netstat		15/tcp 
qotd            17/udp          quote 
quote		17/tcp		# quote of the day 
chargen		19/tcp		ttytst source 
chargen		19/udp		ttytst source 
ftp-data	20/tcp 
ftp		21/tcp 
telnet		23/tcp 
smtp		25/tcp		mail #Simple Mail Transfer 
nsw-fe		27/tcp		# NSW User System FE [24, RHT] 
msg-icp		29/tcp		# MSG ICP [85, RHT] 
msg-auth	31/tcp		# msg authentication 
dsp		33/tcp		# display support protocol 
lp		35/tcp		# any private printer server [JBP] 
time            37/udp          timserver 
time		37/tcp	        timerserver	# time 
rlp             39/udp          resource 
rlp		39/tcp		# resource location protocl 
graphics	41/tcp		# Graphics 
name		42/tcp		nameserver 
name		42/udp		nameserver 
whois           43/udp          nicname 
whois		43/tcp		nicname 
mpm-flags	44/tcp 
mpm		45/tcp 
mpm-snd		46/tcp 
ni-ftp		47/tcp 
log		49/tcp		#login host protocol 
la-maint	51/tcp		# imp local address maintenance 
nameserver	53/tcp          domain 
nameserver	53/udp          domain 
isi-gl		55/tcp		# isi graphics language 
apts		57/tcp		# private terminal access 
apfs		59/tcp		# private file services 
ni-mail		61/tcp		# ni mail [5, SK8] 
via-ftp		63/tcp		# VIA Systems - ftp 
tacacs-ds	65/tcp		# tacacs-database service 
bootps          67/udp          bootp 
bootps		67/tcp		# bootstrap protocol server 
bootpc          68/udp 
bootpc		68/tcp		# bootstrap client 
tftp            69/udp 
tftp		69/tcp		# trivial file transfer 
netrjs-1	71/tcp		# remote job service 
netrjs-2	72/tcp		# " " 
netrjs-3	73/tcp		# "" 
netrjs-4	74/tcp		# "" 
priv-dial	75/tcp		# private dial out services 
rje		77/tcp	        netrjs  # any private rje service 
finger		79/tcp 
hosts2-ns	81/tcp          hosts2	#  hosts2 name server 
mit-ml-dev	83/tcp		# MIT ML Device [DPR] 
mit-ml-dev	85/tcp		# ditto 
link		87/tcp          ttylink	# private terminal link 
su-mit-tg	89/tcp		# su/mit telnet gateway 
mit-dov		91/tcp		# mit dover spooler 
dcp		93/tcp		# device control protocl 
supdup		95/tcp		# supdup [27, MRC] 
swift-rvf	97/tcp		# swift remote virtual file protocol 
tacnews		98/tcp		# tac news 
metagram	99/tcp		# metagram relay 
newacct		100/tcp		# unauthorized use 
hostnames	101/tcp	        hostname	# nic host name server 
iso-tsap	102/tcp         tsap	# [16, MTR] 
x400		103/tcp 
x400-snd	104/tcp 
csnet-ns	105/tcp		# csnet mailbox name nameserver 
rtelnet		107/tcp		# remote telnet service 
pop2		109/tcp         pop postoffice# post office protocol version 2 
pop3		110/tcp		# post office protocol version 3 
sunrpc          111/udp 
sunrpc		111/tcp		# SUN remote procedure call 
auth		113/tcp	        authentication	# authentication service 
sftp		115/tcp		# simple file transfer protocol 
uucp-path	117/tcp		# uucp path service 
nntp		119/tcp		# network news transfer protocol 
erpc            121/udp 
erpc		121/tcp		# encore Epedited remote proc. call 
ntp             123/udp 
ntp		123/tcp		# network time protocol 
locus-map	125/tcp		# locus pc-interface net map server 
locus-con	127/tcp		# locus PC-interface CONN server 
pwdgen		129/tcp		# password generator protocol 
cisco-fna	130/tcp		# cisco FNATIVE [WX8] 
cisco-tna	131/tcp		# CISCO TNATIVE 
cisco-sysmaint	132/tcp		# CISCO sysmaint 
statsrv         133/udp 
statsrv		133/tcp		# statistics service 
ingres-net	134/tcp		# ingres-net 
loc-srv		135/tcp		# location services 
profile         136/udp 
profile		136/tcp		# profile naming service 
netbios-ns	137/tcp		# netbios name service [JBP] 
netbios-dgm	138/tcp		# netbios datagram service 
netbios-ssn	139/tcp		# netbios session service 
emfis-data	140/tcp		# emfis Data Service [GB7] 
emfis-cntl	141/tcp		# emfis control service 
bl-dim		142/tcp		# britton-lee idm 
imap2		143/tcp		# interim mail access protocol v2 
NeWS		144/tcp         news 
uaac		145/tcp		# uaac protocl [DAG4] 
iso-tp0		146/tcp	        iso-ip0 
is0-ip		147/tcp		# [MTR] 
cronus		148/tcp		# [135, JXB] 
aed-512		149/tcp		# aed 512 emulation service 
sql-net		150/tcp 
hems		151/tcp 
bftp		152/tcp		# background file transfer program 
sgmp		153/tcp		# sgmp 
netsc-prod	154/tcp		# [SH37] 
netsc-dev	155/tcp		# 
sqlsrv		156/tcp 
knet-cmp	157/tcp		# knet/vm command message protocol 
pcmail-srv	158/tcp		# pcmail server 
nss-routing	159/tcp 
sgmp-traps	160/tcp 
snmp            161/udp 
snmp		161/tcp 
snmp-trap       162/udp 
snmptrap	162/tcp 
cmip-manage	163/tcp		# cmip/tcp manager 
cmip-agent	164/tcp 
xns-courier	165/tcp		# Xerox 
s-net		166/tcp		# Sirius Systems 
namp		167/tcp 
rsvd		168/tcp 
send		169/tcp 
print-srv	170/tcp		# network postscript 
multiplex	171/tcp		# network innovations multiplex 
cl/1		172/tcp 
xyplex-mux	173/tcp 
mailq		174/tcp 
vmnet		175/tcp 
genrad-mux	176/tcp 
xdmcp		177/tcp		# X dispaly manager control protocol 
nextstep	178/tcp 
bgp		179/tcp		# Border Gateway Protocol 
ris		180/tcp		# Intergraph 
unify		181/tcp 
unisys-cam	182/tcp 
ocbinder	183/tcp 
ocserver	184/tcp 
remote-kis	185/tcp 
kis		186/tcp		# KIS protocol 
aci		187/tcp 
mumps		188/tcp 
qft		189/tcp		# queued file transport [WXS] 
gacp		190/tcp		# gateway access control protocol 
prospero	191/tcp 
osu-nms		192/tcp		# osu network monitoring protocol 
irq		194/tcp		# internat relay chat 
dn6-nlm-aud	195/tcp		# DNSIX Network Level Module Audit 
dn6-smm-red	196/tcp 
dls		197/tcp 
dls-mon		198/tcp 
at-rtmp         201/udp 
at-rmtp		201/tcp		# AppleTalk Routing Maintenance 
at-nbp          202/udp 
at-nbp		202/tcp		# AppleTalk Name Binding 
at-3            203/udp 
at-3		203/tcp		# AppleTalk Unused 
at-echo         204/udp 
at-echo		204/tcp		# appletalk echo 
at-5            205/udp 
at-5		205/tcp		# appletalk Unused 
at-zis          206/udp 
at-zis		206/tcp		# zone info. 
at-7            207/udp 
at-7		207/tcp 
at-8            208/udp 
at-8		208/tcp 
sur-meas	243/tcp		# survey measurment 
dsp3270		245/tcp		# display systems protocol 
link		245/tcp		# link 
biff            512/udp         # used by mail system to notify users 
exec		512/tcp 
who             513/udp         # maintains data bases showing who's 
login		513/tcp 
syslog          514/udp 
cmd		514/tcp 
syslog		514/udp 
printer		515/tcp		# spooler 
talk		517/udp 
ntalk           518/udp 
utime           519/udp         unixtime 
router          520/udp         #local routing process (on site); 
efs		520/tcp		# extended file name server 
timed           525/udp         #timeserver 
tempo		526/tcp		# newdate 
courier		530/tcp	        rpc 
conference	531/tcp	        chat 
netnews		532/tcp 	readnews 
netwall         533/udp         #for emergency broadcasts 
uucp		540/tcp 	uucpd 
klogin		543/tcp 
kshell		544/tcp		krcmd 
new-rwho        550/udp         new-who 
dsf		555/tcp 
remotefs	556/tcp		# rfs server 
rmonitor        560/udp         rmonitord 
monitor         561/udp 
chshell		562/tcp		chcmd 
meter		570/tcp		demon 
meter           571/udp         udemon 
pcserver	600/tcp		# sun IPC server 
nqs		607/tcp 
mdqs		666/tcp 
elcsd           704/udp 	errlog # copy/server daemon 
loadav          750/udp 
rfile		750/tcp 
pump		751/tcp 
qrh		752/tcp 
rrh		753/tcp 
tell		754/tcp		send 
nlogin		758/tcp 
con		759/tcp 
ns		760/tcp 
rxe		761/tcp 
quotad		762/tcp 
cycleserv	763/tcp 
omserv		764/tcp 
webster		765/tcp 
phonebook	767/tcp		phone 
vid             769/udp 
vid		769/tcp 
cadlock         770/udp 
rtip		771/tcp 
cycleserv2	772/tcp 
notify          773/udp 
submit		773/tcp 
acmaint_dbd     774/udp 
rpasswd		774/tcp 
acmaint_transd  775/udp 
entomb		775/tcp 
wpages          776/udp 
wpages		776/tcp 
wpgs		780/tcp 
mdbs_daemon	800/tcp 
device		801/tcp 
maitrd		997/tcp 
puparp          998/udp 
busboy		998/tcp 
puprouter       999/udp		applix 
garcon		999/tcp 
cadlock         1000/udp 
blackjack	1025/tcp 	#network blackjack 
 hermes          1248/udp 
bbn-mmc		1347/tcp	#multi-media conferencing 
bbn-mmx		1348/tcp	# "" 
ingreslock	1524/tcp 
orasrv		1525/tcp 	oracle 
issd            1600/tcp 
nkd             1650/tcp 
dc              2001/tcp 
wizard          2001/udp       curry 
globe           2002/udp 
emce            2004/udp       CCWS mm conf 
mailbox         2004/tcp 
berknet         2005/tcp 
oracle          2005/udp 
invokator       2006/tcp 
raid-cc         2006/udp       raid 
dectalk         2007/tcp 
raid-am         2007/udp 
conf            2008/tcp 
terminaldb      2008/udp 
news            2009/tcp 
whosockami      2009/udp 
pipe_server     2010/udp 
search          2010/tcp 
raid-cc         2011/tcp       raid 
servserv        2011/udp 
raid-ac         2012/udp 
ttyinfo         2012/tcp 
raid-am         2013/tcp 
raid-cd         2013/udp 
raid-sf         2014/udp 
troff           2014/tcp 
cypress         2015/tcp 
raid-cs         2015/udp 
bootserver      2016/udp 
bootclient      2017/udp 
cypress-stat    2017/tcp 
rellpack        2018/udp 
terminaldb      2018/tcp 
about           2019/udp 
whosockami      2019/tcp 
xinupageserver  2020/udp 
servexec        2021/tcp 
xinuexpansion1  2021/udp 
down            2022/tcp 
xinuexpansion2  2022/udp 
xinuexpansion3  2023/udp 
xinuexpansion4  2024/udp 
ellpack         2025/tcp 
xribs           2025/udp 
scrabble        2026/udp 
shadowserver    2027/tcp 
submitserver    2028/tcp 
device2         2030/tcp 
blackboard      2032/tcp 
glogger         2033/tcp 
scoremgr        2034/tcp 
imsldoc         2035/tcp 
objectmanager   2038/tcp 
lam             2040/tcp 
interbase       2041/tcp 
isis            2042/tcp 
isis            2042/udp 
isis-bcast      2043/udp 
rimsl           2044/tcp 
rimsl           2044/udp 
cdfunc          2045/udp 
sdfunc          2046/udp 
dls             2047/tcp 
dls             2047/udp 
dls-monitor     2048/tcp 
shilp           2049/tcp 
shilp           2049/udp 
NSWS            3049/tcp 
rfa             4672/tcp       # remote file access server 
commplex-main   5000/tcp 
commplex-link   5001/tcp 
rmonitor_secure 5145/udp 
padl2sim        5236/tcp 
xdsxdm          6558/udp 
man             9535/tcp 
isode-dua       17007/udp 
vi)	Name Service concepts and what /etc/hosts is about 
The internet protocol document defines names, addresses and routes as follows:
	A name indicates what we seek.
	An address indicates where it is.
	A route indicates how to get there.
Every network interface attached to a tcp/ip network is identified by a
unique 32-bit IP address. A name (hostname) can be assigned to any device
that has an IP address. Names are assigned to devices because, compared to
numeric Internet addresses, names are easier to remember and type
correctly. In use, most of the tcp/ip software on linux can interchangeably
use name or ip address but whichever is chosen, it is always the IP address
that is used to make connections. Translating names into addressses isn't
simply a "local" issue. The command 'telnet' is expected to
work correctly on every host that is connected to the network. If the
machine is connected to the Internet, hosts all over the world should be
able to translate the name into a valid IP address, therefore, some
facility must exist on the net to translate the name into the numeric IP

There are two methods for doing this: one involves using a local lookup
table ('/etc/hosts') and the other uses DNS (Domain Name System) to
remotely interrogate the network for the IP address.

'/etc/hosts' is a very simple file which contains a numeric IP address
followed by a hostname eg:
	# note that the hash is a comment, no text is processed after 
	# it until the next  
	#	csd	csdsun	manic	# Tom's machine	chef	# Main waste of money 
	# other nets	hal	hal-9000	# local hidden host	slave	# linux engine 485 25	zen	# Interactive 2.2.1 386 33	thing 
	# external nets	weird.emer.cty.oz 
Clearly this has a limitation in that on large networks ALL machines would
have to have this information on disk and that could have 1000's of entries
Just think what that means if an extra 120 machines were added! 1000's of
machines would have to have their /etc/hosts table updated either by hand
or automatic shell scripts calling the list from a main machine,... (see
where this is leading?) Enter the DNS service...

DNS scales well. It doesn't rely on a single large table; it is a
distributed database system that doesn't bog down as the database grows.
DNS currently provides information on approximately 700,000 hosts. DNS also
guarentees thst the new host information will be disseminated to the rest
of the network as it is needed.
vii)	DNS nameserver configuration files and how to fix them 
DNS configuration reqires that a number of files be edited.  In the case of
Linux these files are minimally:

		a_hosts_table (normally called named.hosts) 
	primary	/usr/etc/inet/a_hosts_table 
	@	IN	SOA root ( 
			1.1	;serial 
			3600	;refresh every 10 hours 
			300	;retry every 6 minutes 
			36000000;expire after 1000 hours 
			3600	; default ttl is 100 hous ) 
		IN	NS 
	slave	IN	A 
	hal 	IN	A 
	zen	IN	A 
	mother	IN	A 
For most people, a nameserver will be available in which case the only file
really needed is resolv.conf which would contain only the domain name of
the site and a nameserver ip address to point to all the named functions
are thus the responsibility of the nameserver and not your machine (crafty

Now unfortunately there are those of us that were just plain born unlucky
and had to RTFM so,... where a nameserver is not available it is possible
to run a nameserver service on your local machine.

The following is a list of files that you will eventually need although
just named.boot and a_hosts_table will suffice
	named.boot:	Sets general named parameters and points to the 
			sources of the domain database information used 
			by this server. The sources can be local disks or 
			remote servers.	Points to the root domain servers 
	named.local:	Used to locally resolve the loopback address 
	named.hosts:	The zone info file that maps host names to IP addresses 
	named.rev:	the zone file for the reverse domain that maps IP  
			addresses to host names (you'll prob never touch it 
			so i'm going to skip it's description unless people 
			get upset enough to lynch me) 
*** STOP PRESS *** 
I've just found out from Ross by sheer accident that there is a program
released in comp.sources.unix (volume25) called hostcvt (mutter mutter)
which is supposidly capable of converting /etc/host entries into the
nesessary corrisponding named files. I just pulled it down and it looks
quite good although 'out of the box' you'll have to #define R_OK 4 in
main.c and fix the bindir/mandir in the makefile. I've NOT run it cos I did
all my configuration by hand so I'm too stubborn to let a mere machine do
the job I did over 2 days in 5 seconds. (ah that pride of mine). I know
that there have been two patches but I only added patch-1 fo it 'cos it's a
hassle for me to get to the internet (me being on x25 protocol based JANET).
As /etc/hosts file's are amazingly easy to generate this is a handy tool to
have and I hope to see it included in the next tcp/ip util kit-bag.

(Actually, I see it's now on sunsite in /pub/Linux/system/Networking as a 
binary probably with the second patch applied, I suggest that you read the
manual entries for it)


The 'named.boot' file points to sources of DNS information. Some of these
sources are local files; others are remote servers. You only need to create
the files referenced in the primary and the cache statements.
commands	|      functions 
directory	|      Defines a directory for all subsequent file referances 
primary		|      Declares this server as primary for the specified zone 
secondary	|      Declares this server as secondary for the specified zone
cache		|      Points to the cache file 
forwarders	|      Lists servers to which queries are forwarded 
slave		|      Forces the server to only use the Forwarders 
example setups
	; cache only server
	primary	0.0.127.IN-ADDR.ARPA	/usr/etc/inet/named.local
	cache	.			/usr/etc/inet/
The loopback domain is an domain that maps the address to the name localhost. The idea of resolving your own loopback
address makes sense to most people, so most named.boot files contain this
	; Primary name server boot 
	directory				/usr/etc/inet 
	primary		named.hosts 
	primary		54.152.IN-ADDR.ARPA	named.rev 
	primary		0.0.127.IN-ADDR-ARPA	named.local 
	cache		. 
The directory statement tells named that all subsequent filenames are
relative to the /usr/etc/inet directory. The first primary statement
declares that this is the primary server for the domain and
that the data for that domain is loaded from the file named.hosts. The
second primary statement points to the file that maps IP addresses from to hostnames. This statement says that the local server is
the primary server for the reverse domain and that the
data for the domain can be loaded from the file named.rev
Standard Resource Records 
Resource Record		Record type	function 
Start of authority	SOA		Mark the beginning of a zone's data, 
					and define parameters that affect the 
					entire zone 
Name server		NS		Identifies a domain's name server 
Address			A		Converts a host name to an address 
Pointer			PT		Converts an address to a hostname 
Mail Exchange		MX		Identifies where to deliver mail for a 
					given domain name 
Canonical name		CNAME		Defines an alias host name 
Host information	HINFO		describes a hosts hardware and OS 
Well Known Service	WKS		Advertises network services 
These resourse records are defined in RFC 1033. 
The format of DNS resourse records is: 
	[name] [ttl] IN	type data 
	name:	This is the name of the domain object the resource record 
		references. It can be an individual host or an entire domain 
	ttl:	time-to-live defines the length of time in seconds that the 
		information in this resource record should be kept in the 
		cache. Usually this field is left blank and the default ttl 
		set in the SOA is used. 
	IN:	Identifies the record as an internet DNS resource record. There 
		are other classes of records, but they are not used by the DNS 
	type:	Identifies what kind of resourse record this is 
	data:	the information specific to this type of resourse record 
The cache Initialization file 
The basic '' file contains "NS" records that name the root servers
and "A" records tha provide the addresses of the root servers. A basic
'' is shown here 
	; - typical setup 
	; Servers for the root domain 
	99999999	IN	NS 
	99999999	IN	NS 
	; Root servers by addresses 
	;	99999999	IN	A	99999999	IN	A 
Note that the ttl is 99999999 the largest possible size so that the root
servers are never removed from the cache.
The 'named.local' file 
The 'named.local' file is used to convert the address (the
loopback address) into the name localhost. It's the zone file for the
reverse domain Because ALL systems use as
the loopback address, this file is virtually identical on every server.
	@	IN 	SOA root. ( 
				1	;	serial number
				36000	;	refresh every 10 hrs 
				3600	;	retry after 1 hr 
				3600000	;	expire after 1000 hrs 
				36000	;	default ttl is 10 hrs 
		IN	NS 
	1	IN	PTR	localhost. 
The 'named.hosts' file 
The 'named.hosts' file contains most of the domain information. This file
converts host names to IP addresses, so "A" records predominate, but it
also contains "MX", "CNAME" and other records.
	; named.hosts file example 
	@	IN 	SOA       probs (
				1	;	serial 
				36000	;	refresh every X seconds 
				3600	;	retry every X seconds 
				3600000	;	expire after X seconds 
				36000	;	default time to live X seconds 
	; define nameservers and mailservers 
		IN	NS 
		IN	MX 
	; define localhost
	localhost	IN	A 
	;hosts in this zone 
	loghost		IN	A
	hal		IN	A 
	zen		IN	A 
	thing		IN	A 
	slave		IN	A 
			IN	MX	2 
	servant		IN	CNAME 
	mother		IN	A 
	; outside domains now follow 
	csd		IN	A 
			IN	MX	5 
	csdsun		IN	CNAME 
	chef		IN	A 
	;fictional outside gateway 
	midway		IN	A 
	; etc until you have built a reasonable host table 
	; that you feel will be adaquate for your network 
vii)	NFS - the network filing system 
Network filing systems are convenient mechinisms which allow your machine
axcess to more disk space that it actually has by 'borrowing' disk space
from another networked machine for either sharing of common data or if
allowed, the storing of data generated by your machine.

NFS is still in alpha testing and has the unfortunate handicap of not being
able to run binaries over the interface (due to mmap support not being
available at the moment) but shell scripts can be run.

NFS has several benifits:
	1)	it reduces local disk storage requirements because 
		a network can store a single copy of a directory, while 
		the directory continues to be fully axcessible to everyone 
		on the network. 
	2)	NFS simplifies central support tasks, becaue files can be 
		updated centrally, yet be available throughout the network 
	3)	NFS allows users to use familiar UNiX commands to manipulate 
		files with rather than learning new ones. There is no need 
		to use rcp/tftp/ftp to copy files, just 'cp' will do

NOTE: the current NFS software isn't able to run binaries (shell scripts yes)
due to bmap() support in the kernel being 'omitted' (ahem). In the next few
weeks we would hope to see this rectified. Linux now has the following
filesystems available for it : minix, extfs, msdos, proc, isofs, ifs(alpha)
with a view to a compressed filesystem being worked on (zfs?) all are perfectly
transparent to each other although filename tructation may occur. The reason
that I mention this is that NFS will allow you filename lengths supported by
the type of filesystem you mount eg the HP9000 here supports 15 cha filenames
on an NFS mount as does it's MAG-OPT drive whereas the sun4's offer unlimited(?)
filename length on their NFS exports.

NFS is controlled by several files:

The '/etc/exports' file
'/etc/exports' allows your machine to decide what local filesystems it will
allow remote clients to NFS mount and decide what access those clients
should have to your filespace.
	Example (I just love examples): 
	/	-access=slave:moonbeam 
	/usr	-ro 
	/home	-root=slave:csdsun,-access=slave,csdsun 
flag	|	function 
ro	|	read only, if this is not specified, the directory is mounted 
	|	as read/write. 
rw	|	read and write, used to explicitly show that the FS is read 
	|	and write 
root	|	normally root cannot use root privillages on an NFS FS as that 
	|	id is untrusted, i.e. you would not be able to make a root owned
 	|	shell. Unless the root option is used, a UID of 0 translates  
	|	to 65536 
access	|	list of hosts who may mount the specified filesystem 
There are other options but these are covered in the README for the NFS kit
the above are the simplest.
The /usr/etc/inet/ file 
The file '' is used to start the named services and nfs the suggested
setup is as follows:
	if [ -f /etc/portmap ] 
        	echo "Starting portmapper..." 
		echo "Starting nfsd..." 
		echo "Starting mountd...." 
		mount -vt nfs fish:/pub /pub & 
		mount -vt nfs sparky:/mnt/a /test & 
Here if the portmapper isn't running it is started. Once started, it is now
possible to hang the nfsd daemon as well as the mountd daemon on it.  The
two mount commands are from the modified mount command that come with the
NFS package and both are run in the background so that if one of the
servers were unreachable the system would continue to try while going on to
finish the system setup and allow root/users to login.  The '-vt nfs' bit
isn't nessessary as the mount program understands the nfs syntax and mounts
it as an nfs system but I include it anyway.

(viii)	'...And on the 6th day she said, "let there be connectivity"...'

All this is well and fine but shows nothing of how to use the various utilities
commonly taken for granted in networking. ie telnet & ftp and X11
	Nornally people would telnet over a LAN (Large area network) to a
remote site simply to play a mud (multi user dungeon) which runs on a socket
say port number 4000 so the command 'telnet 4000'
would connect to a service offered by that machine on port 4000. Now then,
sockets are most easily perceived as 'openings' in a wall where data may
pass through in a uni/bidirectional fashion, there are any number of ports 
available for use and quite a few reserved port sockets can be found in
your /etc/services file. For example by telneting to port 7 of your
target machine you should be able to communicate with the computer by typing in
a few charcters and pressing return. Port 7 is the echo service and any input
you type should be sent back exactly as you sent it. In normal use, however,
telnet connects to port 23 where a login service is provided for interactive
logins to the system.
	Ftp allows the user to transfer files frrm the host to the target
machine but requires the user to login as (s)he whold normally. Once logged
in the user can transfer files both into and out of the machine with
simple commands like 'get text.doc' or 'send report.wps'. Ofter ftp is used
in the 'get' mode and when browsing sites it is usefull to know that you can
peek at the contents of a small README file using the command 
'get README.requirements /dev/tty' which will transfer the contents of the
file to your tty line (in english: the screen)
	If you run X11, you can have even more fun with tcp/ip as you can
'throw' displays across xservers eg 'xterm -display zen:0 &' would start
xterm running on your machine but all graphical input/outpu would be axcessable
only on zen. In this case zen would have to 'trust' your machine for to accept
this which is accomplised using the command 'xhost +hostname'

One of the most common complaints regards the 'config' command.  What isn't
often noted is that this has to be recompiled from the 0.8.1 sources
(available currently as
Another problem that crops up is that some binaries that are distributed
require libc.2.2.2 to be present 

	Other people think that it's their version of libraries that cause the
problem but can't find the source code for the various utils to recompile.
Well sorry folks you are out of luck, the source code for those utils like
ftpd and inetd are jealously held back because they are buggy and full of
ugly hacks so rather than have the net flooded with complaints, they have
been compiled into binary form and shoved out the door with innocent looks
about them. Of note are inetd and named from the BSD sources, someone needs
to port them as the current ones are erm.. well not really inetd/named. A
new telnetd will probably be available after the kernel pty's are fixed
which looks as though it'll break a lot of ioctl code.
	You boot the new kernel and suddenly all hell breaks loose,... you have
printk's telling you about RPC errors, framepacket errors etc,.. it looks
a mess but the kernel keeps working,... I suggest you grab HLU's bootdisk
and edit your rc files again. Your problem here is most likely that you have
accidentally attemped to use a working IP address as your own. If it's a sun's,
you can expect the sun to lose all networking capabillity and not recover
until lots of drastic commands are issued (fastboot won't help the guy either)
I was asked to do this so I wasn't too fussed.

	To check that something is working in named when it is run check out
/usr/tmp/named_dumb.db. This is the file that named creates from all your
configuration files. Check it exists, and contains formatted information
similar to your named.hosts file.
If it's zero length then something is wrong with your SOA record heading
(A missing '.' perhaps)

	Now then, to give you an Idea of what is possible, I'll describe what
I have setup and working. I have X11(Xfree86-1.2) running,.. In one xterm I
have a dos session going, in another I have a telnet session connected to
a sun (csd), and on that sun, i'm connected to a diku on the linux machine
through 'telnet slave 4000', in yet another xterm I have an ftp session to yet
another sun(chef) pulling CIA 10Megabugger world map onto an NFS mounted disk
on another sun (hal) at a rate of about 35k/s (+/- 15k). I was going to mount
up a swapfile on an NFS disk but decided against it on the grounds of what
might happen if the external machine fell over while I was using that swapfile.

Some relief can be found on the newsgroup/mailing lists but one thing that will
*REALLY* help is this,...


	char	alpha_test[1..80];
	FILE	*panic;

	if ((kernel == lastest_on_offer) && (tcpip_broke))
		if (kernel_paniced)
			fprintf(std_email,"give blurb about kernel\n");
			system("nm ~linux/tools/system | grep ");
			fprintf(std_email,"Conditions of error (recreatable)");

(Sorry about that, we had a compitition to find out who could write the whackist
pseudo C code) more simply stated, the error address that is reported by the
kernel can be used with a kernel system file to tell us what function broke
and how far into it it broke.

Several things that can help

	1)	Upgrade your kernel to the latest one that you can grab  
		(currently at time of writting 0.98.5). Alternatively
		if you are running 0.96.5, all the patches are available
		on, but
		as always, think strongly of going to a higher kernel

	2)	Join the NET mail channel, you can learn an awful lot 
		from the guys on this channel (like the various new 
		copyrighted techniques for tearing out your hair) 

	3)	Try and upgrade your C compiler and libraries to at least 
		version 2.2.2d and if possible, combine it with gcc 2.3.2
		although if disk space is low, trash your 2.2.2 version
		and install 2.3.2 from

	4)	Binary distributions of various network probrams can be 
		found on,.. always read the README files 
		they are there for a reason! (personal show/contacts/etc..) and also have good variation
		in utilities that you can use. Also don't forget that a lot
		of network programs will compile reasonably well although,
		be prepared for unexpected weeks of fustration.

	5)	Depending on your type of problem, contacting the author 
		of the software or the person who ported the software would 
		be a better choice. 

	6)	If you are experiencing problems with missing files which are
		placed where you think they *should* be, it's always worth
		trying the following to find out what files are being used

			strings  | less
		This should show up any hard linked files in the binary.
		eg differing versions of telnet will look at /etc/services OR
		/usr/etc/inet/services, therefore, it is a good idea to have
		a symlink from one to the other eg

			ln -s /etc/services /usr/etc/inet/services

	7)	Complain bitterly to me if I haven't covered your problem  
		and I'll get it sorted for the next FAQ 
Cast of this production 
Ross Biro	-	Without whom all this wouldn't be possible 
			and who pointed out holes in my documentation. 
			Also contributed the history of tcp/ip on linux 
			after he saw my rather perverted view of it. 
Mitch DeSouza	-	Constant alpha tester. Also pointed out mistakes 
			and made critical and helpfull suggestions (like 
			getting a spell checker). Also gave me his Tel No. 
			which I used to annoy him with. 
Rick Sladkey	-	The current Author of the NFS client server code 
			who with the help of Doug Quale repatched the 
			kernel to support networking filesystems. 

Donald Becker	-	Author of the drop in drivers for the linux kernel
			allowing the following cards to be used,
			3com503, 3com503/16, NE2000, NE1000 and even a
			3com501 (Donald: 'not recommended').

Matt Welsh	-	For a quick overview of the process of installing the
			atlernative ethernet drivers.
The pioneers	-	Mentioned in the history of TCP/IP 0.8.[01] by 
			Ross earlier in this FAQ, these are fearless people
			who brazenly marched their filesystems towards
			complete oblivion and watched weeks of work
			evapourate in milliseconds without a shred of hate
			for the OS that they had come to love.
The supporting	-	You know who you are (probably, depending on how 
extras			much virtual beer you had last night) for contributing 
			to the network code with the various bug reports that
			inevitably crop up. 
Linus Torvalds	-	The elusive ecentric UNiX kernel coder who probably 
			burns more CPU time on compiling than anyone else 
			Here's to a long and healthy kernel development 
			program and a Nobel equiv award for his efforts. 
Myself		-	The only sad person to take on the FAQ because I was 
			getting annoyed at the number of 'petty' tcp/ip code 
			problems being asked on the net. Besides of which I 
			wanted to give something useful towards Linux which 
			I've used since 0.10 (does this make me a veteran?) 
Phil	(The non spell checking insomniacial/palagerist who never learnt 
=--=	 english grammer)

			  SCO's Case Against IBM

November 12, 2003 - Jed Boal from Eyewitness News KSL 5 TV provides an
overview on SCO's case against IBM. Darl McBride, SCO's president and CEO,
talks about the lawsuit's impact and attacks. Jason Holt, student and 
Linux user, talks about the benefits of code availability and the merits 
of the SCO vs IBM lawsuit. See SCO vs IBM.

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