Path: utzoo!attcan!uunet!husc6!mailrus!nrl-cmf!ames!pasteur!ucbvax!decwrl!purdue!spaf
From: s...@cs.purdue.EDU (Gene Spafford)
Newsgroups: news.misc,news.config
Subject: The USENET Backbone (Updated: 18 May 1988)
Message-ID: <>
Date: 1 Jun 88 06:28:44 GMT
Expires: 11 Jul 88 06:28:43 GMT
Organization: Dept. of Computer Sciences, Purdue Univ.
Lines: 154
Supersedes: <>

Original-from: Gene Spafford ( & (J. A. Durieux)
[Most recent change: 18 May 1988 by]

A Usenet "backbone" site is one which exchanges every (non-local) news
article it receives with at least two other backbone sites; or which is
the main newsfeed for a particular geographical area (e.g., Australia)
or special news gateway (e.g., inet) and exchanges news with at least
one other backbone site.  This exchange is done (theoretically) with
minimum delay.  Thus, any article submitted to a backbone site is
supposed to propagate to all other backbone sites within a very short
time period. (Under actual conditions, your mileage may vary.)  To be
labelled as part of the "backbone," a site must also:
    * be of sufficient capacity to handle the load of news;
    * be of sufficient capacity and connectivity to handle the load
      of mail generated by replies to news articles and as submissions
      to mailing lists and moderated groups sent through the backbone;
    * be running a recent version of the news software, and keep
      up-to-date with new releases and patches;
    * provide a stable news and mail relay service, preferably including
      a mailer understanding domains and domain-based addressing;
    * be staffed by experienced, responsible, capable staff who
      will maintain news and mail, and quickly respond to problem
      reports and requests for assistance;
    * wish to be advertised as a backbone site, thus taking part in
      discussions and debate as well as becoming a target for abuse
      from the net-at-large;
    * evidence some measure of financial and/or political stability
      so as to be able to remain as a backbone site for the
      indefinite future.
Site admins wishing their site included in this posting should
document the above points in mail to "".

Each backbone site normally feeds some number of well-connected
secondary sites, most of which are not "leaf" (terminal) nodes.
These secondary sites feed the news out to other distribution and leaf
nodes, and so on.

For optimal news distribution, each site should establish an "L" type
link with a site closely connected to a backbone site. This will help
ensure that any articles submitted from that site get propagated to the
whole net with a minimum of delay.  Sites should *not* request a news
feed from a backbone site unless they are willing to feed at least five
or six (or more) other, non-terminal sites.

Note that some backbone links (viz., ALL--munnari,ncar--nbires,
uunet--mcvax) do not carry all newsgroups, usually meaning "talk" and
some "rec" groups, but sometimes also including "soc", "sci", "news",
"misc", and "comp" newsgroups.  The European component of Usenet
receives a limited number of groups from outside Europe, as well as
having a number of active "eunet" newsgroups, and exchanges all those
articles via X.25 links.

To send mail to the administrators of all the backbone sites, address
your mail to "".  If you wish to send mail to the
administrator of a particular site, consult the uucp map for the name
and address of the appropriate individual(s).  (In Europe uucp map
entries are obtained through the national backbone's "netdir"
  /-------------------ohio-state                                   vuwcomp
 /                       |                                            :
/   /---------------\    |      ncar.....................nbires  ..munnari
|  /                 \   |      |   \                        |  /
| /         linus--husc6-+-ukma |    \----ames---amdahl----uunet---attcan--utzoo
| |         / |       |  |  | | |           |\        \      :  \            |
| | (decvax)  |       |  |  | | |           | \        : (mcvax) \           |
| |           |       |  |  | | | (rutgers) |  \       :     :    \          |
| |           |       |  |  | | |        |  |   \      :     :     |         |
| |           |       |  |  | | |        ucsd--ucbvax  :   kddlab  |         |
| \      philabs---cmcl2 |  | | |                  |    \    :     |       utgpu
|  \                 \   |  | gatech---purdue---decwrl--hplabs     |         |
|   \                 \  |  |  /  |            /                   |         |
|    \                 \ |  | /   |           /                    |         |
|  mit-eddie-----------rutgers---mcnc---decvax---------------tektronix       |
|                      /      \        /      \                              |
|                (ucsd)        bellcore       (linus)                        |
|                             /        \                                     |
\                      ulysses       clyde-------------------------------watmath
 \                                     |          

                                                      --- = full link
                                                      ... = restricted link

This is the European backbone (mcvax feeds all of them):

            tut   enea   diku   unido   hafro   	tut -> Finland
             |      \     |     /	  |		enea -> Sweden
             |       \    |    /	  |		diku -> Denmark
             |        \   |   /		  |		unido -> W. Germany
             |         \  |  /		  |		inria -> France
    inria----+----------mcvax-------------+       	mcvax -> Netherlands
             |         /  |  \	          |		cernvax -> Switzerland
             |        /   |   \	          |		ukc -> Great Britain
             |       /    |    \          |		prlb2 -> Belgium
             |      /     |     \         |		i2unix -> Italy
	   tuvie  ukc    prlb2   i2unix  cernvax	tuvie -> Austria
							hafro -> Iceland

Site		Who They Are
----		------------
alberta		University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
amdahl		Amdahl Corp, Sunnyvale CA
ames		NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA
att		AT&T "virtual machine", Columbus OH & Naperville, IL.
attcan		AT&T Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
bellcore	Bellcore, Morristown, NJ 
cernvax		CERN Labs, Geneva, Switzerland
clyde		AT&T, NJ somewhere
cmcl2		NY University, New York City, NY
decvax		Digital Equipment Corp, Nashua, NH
decwrl		Digital Equipment Corp, Palo Alto, CA
diku		University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
enea		ENEA DATA Svenska AB, Taeby, Sweden
gatech		Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA
hafro		Marine Research Institute, Reykjavik, Iceland
hplabs		HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA
husc6		Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
i2unix		University of Genova, Genova, Italy
inria		INRIA, Rocquencourt, Le Chesnay, France
kddlab		KDD International T&T Co., Tokyo, Japan
linus		Mitre Corporation, Bedford, MA
mcnc		Microelectronics Center of NC, Research Triangle Park, NC
mcvax		Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica, Amsterdam, Netherlands
mit-eddie	Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA
munnari		University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
nbires		NBI Inc., Boulder CO
ncar		National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO
ohio-state	Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
philabs		Philips Laboratories, Briarcliff Manor, NY
prlb2		Philips Laboratory, Brussels, Belgium
purdue		Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN
rutgers		Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ
tektronix	Tektronix, Inc., Beaverton, OR
tut		Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland
tuvie		TU Wein, EDV-Zentrum/PRA, Wein, Austria
ubc-cs		University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC
ucbvax		University of CA at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA
ucsd		University of CA at San Diego, La Jolla, CA
ukc		University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, UK
ukma		University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY
ulysses		AT&T Bell Labs, ??, NJ
unido		University of Dortmund, Dortmund, W. Germany
utgpu		University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
utzoo		University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
uunet		UUNET Communications, Inc., Fairfax, VA
vuwcomp		Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
watmath		University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
Gene Spafford
NSF/Purdue/U of Florida  Software Engineering Research Center,
Dept. of Computer Sciences, Purdue University, W. Lafayette IN 47907-2004
Internet:	uucp:	...!{decwrl,gatech,ucbvax}!purdue!spaf

			  SCO's Case Against IBM

November 12, 2003 - Jed Boal from Eyewitness News KSL 5 TV provides an
overview on SCO's case against IBM. Darl McBride, SCO's president and CEO,
talks about the lawsuit's impact and attacks. Jason Holt, student and 
Linux user, talks about the benefits of code availability and the merits 
of the SCO vs IBM lawsuit. See SCO vs IBM.

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