From: bos...@toe.CS.Berkeley.EDU (Keith Bostic)
Newsgroups: comp.os.386bsd.announce
Subject: The 4.4BSD-Lite distribution announcement
Followup-To: comp.unix.bsd
Date: 20 Apr 1994 17:49:19 -0700
Organization: University of California, Berkeley
Lines: 409
Message-ID: <2p4ibg$>

    (510) 642-7780

                                               March 1, 1994

Dear Colleague:

     We are delighted, at long last, to send you information
about our March 1994 release of 4.4BSD-Lite.  The University
and UNIX System Laboratories have resolved the  issues  sur-
rounding the second BSD Networking Release (Net/2) distribu-
tion (see attached press release), and the University is now
able to release 4.4BSD-Lite.  We strongly recommend that you
replace any Net/2 source or binary code with 4.4BSD-Lite.

     The 4.4BSD-Lite software is copyrighted by the  Univer-
sity  of  California and others, but may be freely redistri-
buted without fee.  It is available to anyone  and  requires
no previous license from AT&T, Novell/USL, or The Regents of
the University of  California.   The  distribution  includes
both  software  developed at Berkeley and much software con-
tributed by authors outside Berkeley.  The code in this dis-
tribution may be redistributed and used in released products
without fee, if the due credit, copyright notice, and  other
requirements  described  in the license and the source files
are met.

     This packet is intended to  serve  two  purposes.   The
first  is  to acquaint you with the details of our distribu-
tion so you may decide if you  wish  to  purchase  it.   The
second is to inform you how to obtain our distribution.

Distribution contents

     The distribution is a  source  distribution  only,  and
does  not contain program binaries for any architecture.  It
will not be possible to compile or run this software without
a pre-existing system that is already installed and running.
In addition, the distribution does not include sources for a
complete  system.   It includes source code and manual pages
for the C library, approximately 90% of the  utilities  dis-
tributed as part of 4.4BSD, and most of the kernel (the same
subsystems that were deleted in Net/2 are still  missing  in
4.4BSD-Lite  -  support  for executing files, doing physical
I/O, managing the buffer cache,  handling  process  tracing,
terminal  character I/O, and doing accounting).  Because the
Computer Systems Research Group has shut down (other than  a
brief  reunion to put together this release), there will not
be anyone available at Berkeley to assist with problems,  so
sites  are  encouraged  to  ensure enough local expertise to
find and fix any problems that are encountered.

     We have attempted to make the system as compliant  with
the ANSI C and IEEE POSIX 1003.1 and 1003.2 standards as was
possible at the time of its release.  We  have  not  run  it
through  any  of  the  verification  test  suites, thus, you
should not claim conformance with  either  standard  without
first validating the code.

     This software distribution is  only  available  on  two
6250bpi  1/2''  9-track  tapes  or one 8mm Exabyte cassette.
The 4.4BSD-Lite distribution contains source for the follow-
ing architectures:

+    HP 9000/300 68000-based workstations,

+    DECstation 3100 and 5000 MIPS-based workstations,

+    Sparcstation I & II  SPARC-based  workstations  (Please
     note that the distribution does not support the Sparcs-
     tation 10.),

+    Sony News MIPS-based workstations,

+    Omron Luna 68000-based workstations,

+    Intel 386/486-based machines (ISA/AT or EISA bus only).

The distribution does not include the  machine  support  for
the  Tahoe  and VAX architectures found in previous BSD dis-
tributions.  Our  primary  development  environment  is  the
HP9000/300  series  machines.   The  other architectures are
developed and supported by people  outside  the  university.
Consequently,  we  are not able to directly test or maintain
these  other  architectures,  so  cannot  comment  on  their
robustness,  reliability,  or  completeness.   More specifi-
cally, the support for the x86 architectures is known to  be

     The major new facilities available in  the  4.4BSD-Lite
release  are  a  new  virtual memory system, the addition of
ISO/OSI networking support, a new virtual filesystem  inter-
face  supporting  filesystem stacking, a freely redistribut-
able implementation of  NFS,  a  log-structured  filesystem,
enhancement  of  the  local filesystems to support files and
filesystems that are up to 2**63 bytes in size, an ISO CDROM
9660 filesystem with Rockridge extensions, enhanced security
and system management support, and  the  conversion  to  and
addition  of  the  IEEE Std1003.1 (``POSIX'') facilities and
many of the IEEE Std1003.2 facilities.   In  addition,  many
new  tools  and additions to the C library are present.  The
kernel  sources  have  been  reorganized  to   collect   all
machine-dependent  files  for  each  architecture  under one
directory, and most of the machine-independent code  is  now
free  of  code  conditional  on specific machines.  The user
structure and process structure  have  been  reorganized  to
eliminate  the  statically-mapped user structure and to make
most  of  the  process  resources  shareable   by   multiple
processes.  The system and include files have been converted
to be compatible with ANSI C, including function  prototypes
for  the  exported  functions.   There  are  numerous  other
changes throughout the system.

     The new virtual memory implementation is  derived  from
the  MACH  operating  system  developed  at  Carnegie-Mellon
University, and was ported to the BSD kernel at the  Univer-
sity of Utah.  The MACH virtual memory system call interface
has  been  replaced  with   the   ``mmap''-based   interface
described  in  the ``Berkeley Software Architecture Manual''
(see the UNIX Programmer's Manual, Supplementary  Documents,
PSD:5).   The interface is similar to the interfaces shipped
by several commercial vendors such as Sun,  Novell/USL,  and
Convex  Computer  Corp.,  and  as described by POSIX 1003.4.
The integration of the new virtual  memory  is  functionally
complete,  but  still has serious performance problems under
heavy memory load.  The internal kernel interfaces have  not
yet been completed and the memory pool and buffer cache have
not been merged.

     The ISO/OSI Networking consists of a kernel implementa-
tion  of transport class 4 (TP-4), connectionless networking
protocol  (CLNP),   and   802.3-based   link-level   support
(hardware-compatible with Ethernet*).  We also include  sup-
port  for ISO Connection-Oriented Network Service, X.25, TP-
0.  The session and presentation layers are provided outside
the  kernel  by  the  ISO  development  environment (ISODE).
Included in this development environment are  file  transfer
and  management  (FTAM), virtual terminals (VT), a directory
services implementation  (X.500),  and  miscellaneous  other

     A new virtual filesystem interface has  been  added  to
the  kernel  to support multiple filesystems.  In comparison
with other  interfaces,  the  Berkeley  interface  has  been
structured  for  more  efficient support of filesystems that
maintain state (such as the local filesystem).   The  inter-
face  has  been extended with support for stackable filesys-
tems done at UCLA.  These extensions allow  for  filesystems
to be layered on top of  each  other  and  allow  new  vnode
operations to be added without requiring changes to existing
filesystem implementations.

     In addition to the local ``fast filesystem'',  we  have
added an implementation of the network filesystem (NFS) that
fully interoperates with the NFS  shipped  by  Sun  and  its
licensees.   Because  our NFS implementation was implemented
using only the publicly available NFS specification, it does
not  require  a  license from Sun to use in source or binary
form.  By default it runs over UDP  to  be  compatible  with
Sun's  implementation.   However,  it can be configured on a
per-mount basis to run over TCP.  Using TCP allows it to  be
used  quickly  and  efficiently  through  gateways  and over
long-haul networks.  Using an extended protocol, it supports
Leases  to  allow  a limited callback mechanism that greatly
reduces the network traffic necessary to maintain cache con-
sistency between the server and its clients.

     A new log-structured filesystem  has  been  added  that
provides near disk-speed output and fast crash recovery.  It
is still experimental in the 4.4BSD-Lite release, so  we  do
not  recommend  it for production use.  We have also added a
memory-based filesystem that runs in pageable memory, allow-
ing  large temporary filesystems without requiring dedicated
physical memory.

     The local ``fast filesystem'' has been enhanced  to  do
clustering  which  allows  large pieces of files to be allo-
cated contiguously resulting in near doubling of  filesystem
throughput.   The  filesystem interface has been extended to
allow files and filesystems to grow to 2**63 bytes  in size.
The quota system has been rewritten to support both user and
group quotas (simultaneously if desired).  Quota  expiration
is  based  on time rather than the previous metric of number
of logins over quota.  This change makes quotas more  useful
on fileservers onto which users seldom login.

     The system security has been greatly  enhanced  by  the
addition  of  additional file flags that permit a file to be
marked as immutable or append only.  Once set,  these  flags
can  only  be  cleared  by the super-user when the system is
running single  user.   To  protect  against  indiscriminate
reading  or  writing  of kernel memory, all writing and most
reading of kernel data structures must be done using  a  new
``sysctl''  interface.   The  information  to be accessed is
described through  an  extensible  ``Management  Information
Base'' (MIB).

     The  4.4BSD-Lite  distribution  contains  most  of  the
interfaces  specified in the IEEE Std1003.1 system interface
standard.  The biggest area of  change  is  a  new  terminal
driver.   The terminal driver meets the POSIX interface with
the  addition  of  the  necessary  extensions  to  get   the
functionality  previously  available  in the 4.3BSD terminal
driver.  4.4BSD-Lite also adds the IEEE Std1003.1  job  con-
trol  interface,  which is similar to the 4.3BSD job control
interface, but adds a security model that was missing in the
4.3BSD  job control implementation.  Other additions include
IEEE Std1003.1 signals, FIFOs, byte-range file locking,  and
saved user and group identifiers.

     There are several new tools and utilities  included  in
this  release.  A new version of make allows much-simplified
makefiles for the system software and allows compilation for
multiple  architectures from the same source tree (which may
be mounted read-only).  Notable additions to  the  libraries
include  functions to traverse a filesystem hierarchy, data-
base interfaces to btree and hashing functions, a new,  fast
implementation  of stdio and radix and merge sort functions.
The additions to the utility suite include greatly  enhanced
versions of programs that display system status information,
new implementations of various traditional  tools  described
in the IEEE Std1003.2 standard, and many others.

     We have been tracking  the  IEEE  Std1003.2  shell  and
utility  work  and  have  included prototypes of many of the
proposed utilities.  Because most of the traditional  utili-
ties  have  been replaced with implementations conformant to
the POSIX standards, you should  realize  that  the  utility
software  may  not be as stable, reliable or well documented
as in traditional Berkeley releases.  In particular,  almost
the  entire  manual  suite has been rewritten to reflect the
POSIX defined interfaces, and in some instances it does  not
correctly  reflect the current state of the software.  It is
also worth noting that, in rewriting this software, we  have
generally   been   rewarded   with  significant  performance
improvements.  Most of the libraries and header  files  have
been  converted  to  be  compliant with ANSI C.  The default
compiler (gcc) is a superset of ANSI C, but supports  tradi-
tional C as a command-line option.  The system libraries and
utilities all compile with either ANSI or traditional C.

     Work  has  also  progressed  in  several  other  areas.
Several important enhancements have been added to the TCP/IP
protocols including TCP header prediction and serial line IP
(SLIP)  with header compression.  Ethernet multicast support
is now available.  The routing implementation has been  com-
pletely  rewritten to use a hierarchical routing tree with a
mask per route to support the arbitrary  levels  of  routing
found  in  the ISO protocols.  The routing table also stores
and caches route characteristics to speed the adaptation  of
the throughput and congestion avoidance algorithms.

     The Kerberos (version 4)  authentication  software  has
been  integrated  into much of the system (including NFS) to
provide the first real network authentication on BSD.

     This release includes several important structural ker-
nel  changes.   The  kernel  uses a new internal system call
convention; the use  of  global  (``u-dot'')  variables  for
parameters and error returns has been eliminated, and inter-
rupted system calls no longer abort using  non-local  goto's
(longjmp's).   A  new  sleep interface separates signal han-
dling from  scheduling  priority,  returning  characteristic
errors  to  abort  or restart the current system call.  This
sleep call also  passes  a  string  describing  the  process
state,  which  is  used by the ps(1) program.  The old sleep
interface can be used  only  for  non-interruptible  sleeps.
The  sleep  interface  (tsleep) can be used at any priority,
but is only interruptible if the PCATCH flag is  set.   When
interrupted, tsleep returns EINTR or ERESTART.

     Many data structures that  were  previously  statically
allocated  are  now allocated dynamically.  These structures
include mount entries, file entries, user open file descrip-
tors,  the process entries, the vnode table, the name cache,
and the quota structures.

How to obtain 4.4BSD-Lite

     To obtain  4.4BSD-Lite  we  require  execution  of  the
Berkeley  License  Agreement  (3/94).   In addition, foreign
licensees must  execute  Addendum  Number  One  for  Foreign
Licensees  in ordering 4.4BSD-Lite.  The fee is $1000.00 for

     Because we are a research and development  organization
and  not  a  commercial  organization,  we make our research
results available for a small license  fee.   We  distribute
only  the  whole system ``As Is'' and cannot send individual
pieces of the system.  We are required by the University  of
California  to  have  a formal license arrangement with each
organization to which we distribute.

     Specifically, for 4.4BSD-Lite,  we  must  receive  from
your  organization the following material before the distri-
bution can be sent:

+    Two original signed and executed copies of the Berkeley
     License Agreement (3/94) between your company or insti-
     tution and The Regents of the University of  California
     along  with Exhibit A properly filled out.  For Foreign
     licensees, there is an Addendum to the  License  Agree-
     ment  that  must  also  be  executed.  Please have this
     person's name and title typed in the available space in
     addition  to  the  signature.   One  signed copy of the
     Berkeley License Agreement  will  be  returned  to  you
     after  it  has  been  executed  by  The  Regents of the
     University of California.

+    A check from a U.S. bank for $1000.00 must be  received
     before  the distribution can be sent.  Checks should be
     made payable to ``The Regents of the University of Cal-
     ifornia, Computer Systems Research Group.'' If you must
     issue a Purchase Order, together with your  prepayment,
     please  issue one that is blank-backed.  If this is not
     possible, insert and initial in the body  of  the  Pur-
     chase  Order the following clause: ``The terms and con-
     ditions of this Purchase Order are not accepted by  The
     Regents  of  the University of California.  The revised
     Berkeley  License  Agreement  (3/94)  prevails.''  Wire
     transfers are strongly discouraged.

+    The attached Site Information  Form  completely  filled
     out.   Your  copy  of  the  signed  4.4BSD-Lite License
     Agreement will be sent to  the  person  listed  as  the
     administrative  contact.   The distribution itself will
     be sent to the technical contact.  All  information  is
     kept  confidential;  it is for our use in notifying you
     of important bug fixes.  Please  note  that  we  cannot
     ship  to  post office boxes; therefore, please have the
     technical contact's address supplied without use  of  a
     post office box.

A checklist is  included  to  aid  you  in  assembling  this
material.  All the above material must be sent to:

        Pauline Schwartz, Distribution Coordinator
        Computer Systems Research Group
        Computer Science Division, EECS
        University of California
        Berkeley, California 94720

Once all these items have been received and  are  in  proper
order,  the  distribution  will  be  sent  to  the technical
address listed on the Site Information Form.  We cannot pro-
vide  delivery  dates.   Once  the material is assembled and
packaged, the distribution is shipped by commercial carrier.
Order  of  shipment  will be based on time of arrival of the
properly completed paperwork.  Because of  the  differential
in  costs of shipping outside the United States, we ask that
organizations outside the continental United States pay  the
collect  shipping  charges.  If the destination is one where
collect shipment cannot be made by the carrier, then advance
payment of the shipping charges will be required.

     The most expedient way to ensure that your full distri-
bution  is  sent  as  quickly as possible is to include in a
single package two original copies of the appropriate Berke-
ley License Agreement completed and properly signed (without
change), the appropriate check properly made  out  to  ``The
Regents  of  the  University of California, Computer Systems
Research Group'' and a completely filled out  Site  Informa-
tion  Form  and  to  send this single package to the address
noted above.

     Please note that if you  modify  the  Berkeley  License
Agreement,  you  may  experience  a delay of three months or
more  before  receiving  an  acceptance  or  denial  of  the
changes.  We reserve the right to cancel your application if
we have not received the requested paperwork within 60  days
from the date it was sent to us.

Special Cases

     University of California Sites.  If you are a  part  of
the  University  of  California, the following items must be
sent to the Computer Systems Research Group: 1) a letter  of
authorization  signed  by the Director or Head of Department
requesting 4.4BSD-Lite,  stating  that  you  have  read  and
understood  the  Berkeley  License Agreement (3/94) and that
your organization will abide by it; 2) an IOC for $1,000.00;
and 3) a Site Information Form.

A Special Note

     The procedures and rules set out in this  document  are
University constraints that must be followed for the distri-
bution of software to be  possible.   The  Computer  Systems
Research  Group  has  no  control over these constraints and
must reject your application if material submitted is not in
order.   If  you  have questions about the licensing process
after reading this letter, you may call Pauline Schwartz  at
(510)  642-7780, write to her, or contact her via electronic
mail at

                         Sincerely yours,

                         Marshall Kirk McKusick
                         Keith Bostic
                         Computer Systems Research Group

*Ethernet is a trademark of the Xerox Corporation.

			  SCO's Case Against IBM

November 12, 2003 - Jed Boal from Eyewitness News KSL 5 TV provides an
overview on SCO's case against IBM. Darl McBride, SCO's president and CEO,
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