Installation notes for Slackware Linux 2.0.0.

A more detailed description of the installation process may be found in the
"Installation-HOWTO", by Matt Welsh. 

Note: If you are installing from a 5.25" boot drive, you might want to read the
file "INS_1_2.MEG" as well as this one.


You will need installation disks: a "bootkernel" disk and a "root/install" disk.

To make your bootkernel/rootdisk combination, you'll have to get a boot kernel
and root disk. Bootkernels are in the bootdsks.12 (for 1.2 meg drives) and 
bootdsks.144 (for 1.44 meg drives). Rootdisks are in rootdsks.12 (for 1.2
meg drives) and rootdsks.144 (for 1.44 meg drives).  Use 'dd' or RAWRITE.EXE
to write them to floppies.

  NOTE: When using dd to create the boot kernel disk or root disk on Suns and 
  possibly some other Unix workstations you must provide an appropriate block
  size. This probably wouldn't hurt on other systems, either. Here's an 

  dd if=scsinet of=/dev/(rdf0, rdf0c, fd0, or whatever) obs=18k


Once you've made your boot and install disks, you'll need to make the disk sets
you wish to install on MS-DOS formatted floppies. The A disks will fit on 1.2 MB
or 1.44 MB disks, but all other disk sets require 1.44 MB disks (if you're
installing from floppy, of course).

These are the disk sets that are available to install:

      A   - Base Linux system
      AP  - Various applications that do not need X
      D   - Program Development (C, C++, Kernel source, Lisp, Perl, etc.)
      E   - GNU Emacs (19.24, with and without X11 support. Your choice.)
      F   - FAQ lists (last updated: May, 1994)
      I   - Info pages.
      IV  - Interviews: libraries, include files, Doc and Idraw apps for X
      N   - Networking (TCP/IP, UUCP, Mail)
      OOP - Object Oriented Programming (GNU Smalltalk 1.1.1)
            Also includes the Smalltalk Interface to X11.
      Q   - All kinds of extra kernels (based on 1.1.18)
      T   - TeX
      TCL - Tcl/Tk/TclX, Tcl language, and Tk toolkit for developing X apps
            More development packages to work with Tcl have also been added,
            as well as David Engel's Linux port with shared libraries.
      X   - XFree-86 2.1.1 Base X Window System
      XAP - Applications for X
      XD  - XFree-86 2.1.1 X server development system, PEX extensions, and man
	    pages for X programming.
      XV  - XView 3.2 release 5. (OpenLook [virtual] Window Manager, apps)
      Y   - Games (that do not require X)

For each disk, make an MS-DOS format disk and copy the proper files to it.
The "00index.txt" files are added by the FTP server. You don't need those.
If you're using NFS or hard drive installation, just set up a directory with
the disk subdirectories for the disk sets you want. You'll only have to make
the boot and root floppies in that case.

Make sure you have a blank, formatted floppy ready to make your Linux boot 
disk at the end of the installation. 

[NOTE]: You may install most software packages by typing "setup" on a
running system. If you reinstall the A series, or the Q series (which
replaces your kernel), be sure to run LILO or make a new boot disk using the
rescue disk. Also, if you reinstall some of the base packages you might need 
to reconfigure files in /etc or other places.

Your packages are listed in /var/adm/packages. Any of these packages may be
removed or reinstalled using "pkgtool".


Patrick Volkerding

Instructions for installing Slackware on machines with a 5.25" boot drive
and a 3.5" second floppy drive.

5.25" boot drives have been well supported since version 1.1.1.  It is possible
to install on a machine that has only a 5.25" drive. Note however, that this
doesn't mean it will be as easy as installing from 3.5", but if you install off
of your hard drive it may actually be easier.

The first 3 disks of Slackware Linux, the A disks, should all fit within
1.2M. To install them, you'll need a boot kernel, and a rootdisk. These can
be found under ./bootdsks.12. Read the README file in the bootdisk 
directory, it gives more information about the new bootdisks.

To make the boot kernel disk, copy the boot kernel of your choice to a floppy
using dd or RAWWRITE.EXE.

To make the root disk, write colrlite, tty12, umsdos12, or tape12 to a floppy
in the same way. (These are in ./rootdsks.12)

Use the boot kernel disk to boot the rootdisk, and install from there. This will
load the ramdisk. Once you have the "slackware:" prompt you may remove the disk
from your machine and continue with the installation.

Once you've got the base system installed, you can install the rest of the
disks by downloaded them on to your harddrive and installing them from there.
Disk series other than A won't fit onto 1.2M disks.

I sincerely hope this helps!

Patrick Volkerding

Sat Apr  2 19:32:34 PST 1994
This is an unofficial HOWTO that describes how to use 'setup' and 'pkgtool'
to upgrade your Linux system.


One of the most commonly asked questions about Slackware (especially after any
major release) is: How do I upgrade my system?

Until recently, it seemed there were two routes you could go. You could back up
everything you wanted to save, and then reinstall from scratch. As anyone who's
done this can attest, it's a tedious process and there's almost always a couple
important files that don't get backed up. The other option was to install the
new packages over the old system. This works, but any old files that aren't
overwritten by new ones will be left in your filesystem. This wastes space, and
makes system administration difficult, especially when configuration files
that are ignored by the new binaries are left behind.

The new versions of 'pkgtool' (a package maintenance tool developed for the
Slackware distribution) should have provide a clean upgrade path from earlier
versions of Slackware. Since it can now remove packages from your hard drive 
while running on a self-contained Linux filesystem loaded into a ramdisk, it
can remove *any* files from your system, including ones that were difficult 
or impossible to remove while running on the harddrive. Files such as the
shell, shared libraries, init, and other crucial system files.

Here's how you'd upgrade to a newer version of Slackware from any previous
version that supports package information files in /var/adm/packages. (If
your system puts these files elsewhere, you might still be able to do this
by creating a symbolic link from the package informataion directory to 

1. Back up important files, or take your chances. ;^)

   Odds, are you'll come through ok. However, there are two important
   exceptions to this rule. The first (and most obvious) is when a package
   overwrites a file you meant to keep with a new one. The second, and 
   possibly more serious situation is when the system needs to replace an
   existing file with a symbolic link. It *will* replace the file, whether
   it's a simple file, a file that's chmoded 444, or a directory filled with
   other subdirectories, each containing part of your Doctoral dissertation.
   So, be careful.

2. Make a list of the packages you plan to replace.

3. Use a bootkernel disk to boot one of the root/install disks. Log in as

4. Mount your root Linux partitions under /mnt while logged into the
   install disk. The method used here differs depending on what filesystem
   you're using for Linux. Here are some examples:

   How to mount an ext2fs partition:

   mount /dev/hda1 /mnt -t ext2
	 Replace this with the name of your root partition.

   Similarly, if the partition was of type xiafs, you would use this command:

   mount /dev/hda1 /mnt -t xiafs

   If you're using UMSDOS (the system that allows you to install onto an 
   existing MS-DOS filesystem), this is the command you would use:

   mount /dev/hda1 /mnt -t umsdos

   If you've got other partitions that are part of your Linux filesystem,
   mount them after you've mounted that root partition. The methos is the
   same - for example, here's how you'd mount an ext2fs /usr partition:

   mount /dev/hda2 /mnt/usr -t ext2

5. Once the partition has been mounted, we need to activate swap space if
   the system has less than 8 MB of memory. (If you have 8 or more MB, you
   may go on to step 6)

   You may use either a swap partition or a swapfile. To get a quick listing
   of your partition information, you can always type 'fdisk -l'. Doing this
   on my machine provides the following information:

   Disk /dev/hda: 15 heads, 17 sectors, 1001 cylinders
   Units = cylinders of 255 * 512 bytes

      Device Boot  Begin   Start     End  Blocks   Id  System
      /dev/hda1          10      10      90   10327+   1  DOS 12-bit FAT
      /dev/hda2          91      91    1000  116025    5  Extended
      /dev/hda3   *       1       1       9    1139    a  OPUS
      /dev/hda5   *      91      91    1000  116016+   6  DOS 16-bit >=32M

      Disk /dev/hdb: 16 heads, 31 sectors, 967 cylinders
      Units = cylinders of 496 * 512 bytes

      Device Boot  Begin   Start     End  Blocks   Id  System
      /dev/hdb1   *       1       1     921  228392+   6  DOS 16-bit >=32M
      /dev/hdb2         922     922     966   11160   82  Linux swap

  From this display, you can see that /dev/hdb2 has been designated as the
  Linux swap partition. If the partition has not been previously prepared
  with mkswap, here's how that would be done:

  mkswap /dev/hdb2 11160

  To activate the swap partition, you would type:

  swapon /dev/hdb2

  6. Remove the packages! To do this, type 'pkgtool' and select the option 
  remove installed packages. You'll be given a list of packages that you've
  installed - just select the list of packages that you plan to replace.

  If you're using one of the full-color versions of pkgtool, you select the
  packages to remove by removing up and down through the list with '+' and
  '-' and toggling packages to reomve with the spacebar. Once you've toggled
  all the packages you want to remove, hit ENTER to remove them.

  If you're using one of the tty based versions of pkgtool, you'll have to 
  type in the names of the packages you with to remove. Seperate each name
  with a space. Don't worry about how long the line ends up - just keep
  typing in the names until you've entered them all, and then hit ENTER to
  remove them.

That's it! Now you've cleaned up the old packages and you're ready to install 
the new ones. Type 'setup' and proceed to install the new packages as normal.

Although it never hurts to play it safe and remove all packages from the 
bootdisk, almost all of them can be removed using pkgtool from your hard
drive. The A series is the important exception here.

I wish everyone good luck with this! :^)

Patrick Volkerding

  The Linux Installation HOWTO
  by Matt Welsh,
  v2.3, 23 April 1994 (modified for Slackware 2.0, 9 June 1994)

  This document describes how to obtain and install the Linux software,
  focusing on the popular Slackware distribution. It is the first docu-
  ment which a new Linux user should read to get started.

  1.  Introduction

  Linux is a freely-distributable implementation of UNIX for 80386 and
  80486 machines. It supports a wide range of software, including X
  Windows, Emacs, TCP/IP networking (including SLIP), the works.  This
  document assumes that you have heard of and know about Linux, and just
  want to sit down and install it.

  1.1.  Other sources of information

  If you have never heard of Linux before, there are several sources of
  basic information about the system. One is the Linux Frequently Asked
  Questions list (FAQ), available from This document contains many
  common questions (and answers!) about Linux---it is a ``must read''
  for new users.

  In the directory /pub/Linux/docs on you'll find a
  number of other documents about Linux, including the Linux INFO-SHEET
  and META-FAQ, both of which you should read.  Also take a look at the
  USENET newsgroups and comp.os.linux.announce.

  Another source of online Linux documentation is the Linux HOWTO
  archive, on The file HOWTO-
  INDEX in that directory explains what Linux HOWTOs are available.

  The Linux Documentation Project is writing a set of manuals and books
  about Linux, all of which are freely distributable on the net.  The
  directory /pub/Linux/docs/LDP on contains the current
  set of LDP manuals.

  The book ``Linux Installation and Getting Started'' is a complete
  guide to getting and installing Linux, as well as how to use the
  system once you've installed it. It contains a complete tutorial to
  using and running the system, and much more information than is
  contained here. This HOWTO is simply a condensation of some of the
  most important information in that book. You can get ``Linux
  Installation and Getting Started'' from in
  /pub/Linux/docs/LDP/install-guide.  The README file there describes
  how you can order a printed copy of the book (about 180 pages).

  1.2.  New versions of this document

  New versions of the Linux Installation HOWTO will be periodically
  posted to comp.os.linux.announce, comp.os.linux, and news.answers.
  They will also be uploaded to various Linux FTP sites, including

  1.3.  Feedback

  If you have questions or comments about this document, please feel
  free to mail Matt Welsh, at I welcome any
  suggestions, criticism, or postcards. If you find a mistake with this
  document, please let me know so I can correct it in the next version.

  2.  Hardware Requirements

  What kind of system is needed to run Linux? This is a good question;
  the actual hardware requirements for the system change periodically.
  The Linux Hardware-HOWTO gives a (more or less) complete listing of
  hardware supported by Linux. The Linux INFO-SHEET provides another

  At the very least, a hardware configuration that looks like the
  following is required:

  Any ISA, EISA or VESA Local Bus 80386 or 80486 system will do.
  Currently, the MicroChannel (MCA) architecture (found on IBM PS/2
  machines) is not supported.  Any CPU from the 386SX to the 486DX2 will
  work. You do not need a math coprocessor, although it is nice to have

  You need at least 4 megabytes of memory in your machine. Technically,
  Linux will run with only 2 megs, but most installations and software
  require 4. The more memory you have, the happier you'll be. I suggest
  8 or 16 megabytes if you're planning to use X-Windows.

  Of course, you'll need a hard drive and an AT-standard drive
  controller. All MFM, RLL, and IDE drives and controllers should work.
  Many SCSI drives and adaptors are supported as well; the Linux SCSI-
  HOWTO contains more information on SCSI.

  Linux can actually run on a single 5.25" HD floppy, but that's only
  useful for installation and maintenance.

  Free space on your hard drive is needed as well. The amount of space
  needed depends on how much software you plan to install. Most
  installations require somewhere in the ballpark of 40 to 80 megs.
  This includes space for the software, swap space (used as virtual RAM
  on your machine), and free space for users, and so on.

  It's conceivable that you could run a minimal Linux system in 10 megs
  or less, and it's conceivable that you could use well over 100 megs or
  more for all of your Linux software. The amount varies greatly
  depending on the amount of software you install and how much space you
  require. More about this later.

  Linux will co-exist with other operating systems, such as MS-DOS,
  Microsoft Windows, or OS/2, on your hard drive. (In fact you can even
  access MS-DOS files and run some MS-DOS programs from Linux.)  In
  other words, when partitioning your drive for Linux, MS-DOS or OS/2
  live on their own partitions, and Linux exists on its own. We'll go
  into more detail later.

  You do NOT need to be running MS-DOS, OS/2, or any other operating
  system to use Linux. Linux is a completely different, stand-alone
  operating system and does not rely on other OS's for installation and

  You also need a Hercules, CGA, EGA, VGA, or Super VGA video card and
  monitor.  In general, if your video card and monitor work under MS-DOS
  then it should work under Linux. However, if you wish to run X
  Windows, there are other restrictions on the supported video hardware.
  The Linux XFree86-HOWTO contains more information about running X and
  its requirements.

  In all, the minimal setup for Linux is not much more than is required
  for most MS-DOS or MS Windows systems sold today. If you have a 386 or
  486 with at least 4 megs of RAM, then you'll be happy running Linux.
  Linux does not require huge amounts of diskspace, memory, or processor
  speed. I (used to) run Linux on a 386/16 MHz (the slowest machine you
  can get) with 4 megs of RAM, and was quite happy. The more you want to
  do, the more memory (and faster processor) you'll need. In my
  experience a 486 with 16 megabytes of RAM running Linux outdoes
  several models of workstation.

  3.  Getting Linux

  In this section we'll cover how to obtain the Linux software.

  3.1.  Linux Distributions

  Before you can install Linux, you need to decide on one of the
  ``distributions'' of Linux which are available. There is no single,
  standard release of the Linux software---there are many such releases.
  Each release has its own documentation and installation instructions.

  Linux distributions are available both via anonymous FTP and via mail
  order on diskette, tape, and CD-ROM. The Linux Distribution HOWTO (see in the file /pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO/Distribution-HOWTO)
  includes a list of many Linux distributions available via FTP and mail

  The release of Linux covered in this HOWTO is the Slackware
  distribution, maintained by Patrick J. Volkerding
  ( It is one of the most popular
  distributions available; it is very up-to-date and includes a good
  amount of software including X-Windows, TeX, and others.  The
  Slackware distribution consists of a number of ``disk sets'', each one
  containing a particular type of software (for example, the d disk set
  contains development tools such as the gcc compiler, and so forth).
  You can elect to install whatever disk sets you like, and can easily
  install new ones later.

  Slackware is also easy to install; it is very self-explanatory.  (So
  self-explanatory, in fact, that this HOWTO may not be necessary.)

  The version of Slackware described here is 2.0.0, of 25 June 1994.
  Installation of later versions of Slackware should be very similar to
  the information given here.

  Information on other releases can be found in the Linux Installation
  and Getting Started manual from the LDP. You can also find other
  releases of Linux on various FTP sites, including See the Distribution-HOWTO
  (mentioned above) for details.

  The instructions here should be general enough to be applicable to
  releases other than Slackware. I hate to be biased towards a single
  release, but I don't have time to keep up with them all! And Slackware
  appears to have what most Linux users are looking for.

  3.2.  Slackware Space Requirements

  Unfortunately, Slackware does not maintain a complete list of
  diskspace requirements for each disk set. You need at least 7
  megabytes to install just the A series of disks; a very rough estimate
  of the required diskspace would be 2 or 2.5 megabytes per disk.

  The following disk sets are available:

     A  The base system. Enough to get up and running and have elvis and
        comm programs available. Based around the 1.0.9 Linux kernel, and
        the new filesystem standard (FSSTND).

        These disks are known to fit on 1.2M disks, although the rest of
        Slackware won't. If you have only a 1.2M floppy, you can still
        install the base system, download other disks you want and
        install them from your hard drive.

     AP Various applications and add ons, such as the manual pages,
        groff, ispell (GNU and international versions), term, joe, jove,
        ghostscript, sc, bc, and the quota patches.

     D  Program development. GCC/G++/Objective C 2.5.8, make (GNU and
        BSD), byacc and GNU bison, flex, the 4.5.26 C libraries, gdb,
        kernel source for 1.0.9, SVGAlib, ncurses, clisp, f2c, p2c, m4,
        perl, rcs.

     E  GNU Emacs 19.25.

     F  A collection of FAQs and other documentation.

     I  Info pages for GNU software. Documentation for various programs
        readable by info or Emacs.

     N  Networking. TCP/IP, UUCP, mailx, dip, deliver, elm, pine, smail,
        cnews, nn, tin, trn.

        Object Oriented Programming. GNU Smalltalk 1.1.1, and the
        Smalltalk Interface to X. (STIX)

     Q  Alpha kernel source and images (currently contains Linux 1.1.18)

        Tcl, Tk, TclX, blt, itcl.

     Y  Games. The BSD games collection, and Tetris for terminals.

     X  The base XFree86 2.1.1 system, with libXpm, fvwm 1.20, and xlock

        X applications: X11 ghostscript, libgr13, seyon, workman,
        xfilemanager, xv 3.01, GNU chess and xboard, xfm 1.2, ghostview,
        and various X games.

     XD X11 program development. X11 libraries, server linkkit, PEX

     XV Xview 3.2 release 5. XView libraries, and the Open Look virtual
        and non-virtual window managers.

     IV Interviews libraries, include files, and the doc and idraw apps.
        These run unreasonably slow on my machine, but they might still
        be worth looking at.

     OI ParcPlace's Object Builder 2.0 and Object Interface Library 4.0,
        generously made available for Linux developers according to the
        terms in the "copying" notice found in these directories.

	[NOTE: These only work with libc-4.4.4, but a new version may
        be released sometime after GCC/G++ 2.5.9 comes out (if it fixes
        the problems that were interfering with OI) ]

     T  LaTeX2e support.

  You must get the ``a'' disk set; the rest are optional.  I suggest at
  least installing the a, ap, and d sets, as well as the x set if you
  plan to run X Windows.

  3.3.  Getting Slackware via Mail Order

  Slackware is available for free from the Internet, as well as via mail
  order (if you don't have Internet access, or don't want to take the
  time to download it yourself). The next section describes how to
  download Slackware from the Internet.

  The various mail order distributors for Slackware (and other Linux
  distributions) are listed in the Linux Distribution HOWTO, from in the directory /pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO.

  3.4.  Getting Slackware from the Internet

  The Slackware release of Linux may be found on any number of FTP sites
  worldwide. The Linux META-FAQ lists several of the Linux FTP sites; we
  suggest that you try to find the software on the FTP site nearest you,
  to reduce net traffic. However, two of the major Linux FTP sites are and

  The Slackware release may be found on the following FTP sites:



  o is Slackware's home site.

  3.4.1.  Downloading the files

  You need to download the following files from the FTP sites listed
  above. Make sure that you use binary mode when FTPing them!

  o  The various README files, as well as SLACKWARE_FAQ.  Be sure to
     read these files before attempting to install the software, to get
     any updates or changes to this document.

  o  A bootdisk image. This is a file that you will write to a floppy to
     create the Slackware boot disk. If you have a 1.44 megabyte boot
     floppy (3.5"), look in the directory bootdsks.144.  If you have a 1.2
     megabyte boot floppy (5.25"), look in the directory bootdsks.12.  The
     README files in these directories describes what the files are.

     You need one of the following files:

  o  bare.gz. This is a boot floppy that has only IDE hard drive
     drivers. (No SCSI, CD-ROM, or networking support.)  Use this if you
     only have an IDE hard drive controller and aren't going to be
     installing over the network or from CD-ROM.

  o  xt.gz. This is a boot floppy with IDE and XT hard drive support.

  o  cd.gz. Contains IDE hard drive and non-SCSI CD-ROM drivers.  Get
     this if you're going to be installing from a (non-SCSI) CD-ROM
     (only relevant if you bought a Slackware CD-ROM of some kind).

  o  cdscsi.gz. Contains IDE and SCSI hard drive support, and non-SCSI
     CD-ROM drivers.

  o  scsi.gz. Contains IDE and SCSI hard drive support, and SCSI CD-ROM

  o  net.gz. Contains IDE hard drive and TCP/IP networking support. Get
     this if you are going to install over the network using NFS.

  o  scsinet.gz. Contains IDE and SCSI hard drive support, SCSI CD-ROM
     drivers, and TCP/IP networking support.  You might want to try this
     one first; use bare.gz or one of the other boot floppies if this
     doesn't work for you.

     You need only one of the above bootdisk images, depending on the
     type hardware that you have in your system.

     The issue here is that some hardware drivers conflict with each
     other in strange ways, and instead of attempting to debug hardware
     problems on your system it's easier to use a boot floppy image with
     only certain drivers enabled. Most users should try scsi.gz or

  o  A rootdisk image. This is a file that you will write to a floppy to
     create the Slackware installation disk. As with the bootdisk image,
     look in rootdsks.144 or rootdsks.12 depending on the type of boot
     floppy drive that you have.

     You need one of the following files:

  o  color144.gz. The menu-based color installation disk for 1.44 meg
     drives. Most users should use this rootdisk.

  o  umsds144.gz. A version of the color144 disk for installing with
     the UMSDOS filesystem -- a way to install Linux into a directory
     on an MS-DOS partition.

  o  tty144.gz. The terminal-based installation disk for 1.44 meg
     drives. You should use color144.gz, but a few people have reported
     problems with it on their system. If color144.gz doesn't work for
     you, try tty144.gz instead.  It is a bit dated and the installation
     procedure isn't identical, but it should work if color144.gz

  o  colrlite.gz. The menu-based color installation disk for 1.2 meg
     drives. Some things have been trimmed off of this disk to make it
     fit on a 1.2 meg floppy, but it should work if you only have a 1.2
     meg drive.

  o  umsdos12.gz. A version of the colrlite disk for installing with
     the UMSDOS filesystem on systems with 1.2 meg drives.

  o  tty12.gz. The terminal-based installation disk for 1.2 meg drives.
     Use this rootdisk if you have a 1.2 meg boot floppy and colrlite.gz
     doesn't work for you.

     Again, you need only one of the above rootdisk images, depending on
     the type of boot floppy drive that you have.

  o  GZIP.EXE. This is an MS-DOS executable of the gzip compression
     program used to compress the boot and rootdisk files (the .gz
     extension on the filenames indicates this). This can be found in
     the install directory.

  o  RAWRITE.EXE. This is an MS-DOS program that will write the contents
     of a file (such as the boot and rootdisk images) directly to a
     floppy, without regard to format. You will use RAWRITE.EXE to
     create the boot and root floppies.  This can be found in the
     install directory as well.

     You only need RAWRITE.EXE and GZIP.EXE if you plan to create the
     boot and root floppies from an MS-DOS system. If you have access to
     a UNIX workstation with a floppy drive instead, you can create the
     floppies from there, using the dd command.  See the man page for dd
     and ask your local UNIX gurus for assistance.

  o  The files in the directories a1, a2, and a3.  These files make up
     the ``a'' disk set of the Slackware distribution. They are
     required. Later, you will copy these files to MS-DOS floppies for
     installation (or, you can install from your hard drive). Therefore,
     when you download these files, keep them in separate directories;
     don't mix the a1 files with the a2 files, and so on.

     Be sure that you get the files without periods in the filenames as
     well. That is, within FTP, use the command ``mget *'' instead of
     ``mget *.*''.

  o  The files in the directories ap1, ap2, etc., depending on what disk
     sets you are installing. For example, if you are installing the
     ``x'' disk series, get the files in the directories x1 through x5.
     As with the ``a'' disk set, above, be sure to keep the files in
     separate directories when you download them.

  3.4.2.  Installation methods

  Slackware provides several different means of installing the software.
  The most popular is installing from an MS-DOS partition on your hard
  drive; the other is to install from a set of MS-DOS floppies created
  from the disk sets that you downloaded.

  You can also install Slackware from an NFS-mounted filesystem over a
  TCP/IP network. This is somewhat involved, however, and a discussion
  of how to do this is out of the range of this document. If you need
  help, ask your local UNIX gurus how to set up your system to mount an
  NFS filesystem which you can install Slackware from. (For this, you'll
  need another system on the network which has Slackware available on an
  exported filesystem.)

  First we'll describe how to create the boot and root floppies, and
  then we'll describe how to set things up for either a hard drive or
  floppy installation.  Creating the boot and root floppies

  You must create floppies from the bootdisk and rootdisk images that
  you downloaded, no matter what type of installation you will be doing.
  This is where the MS-DOS programs GZIP.EXE and RAWRITE.EXE come into

  First you must uncompress the bootdisk and rootdisk images using
  GZIP.EXE (on an MS-DOS system, of course). For example, if you're
  using the bare.gz bootdisk image, issue the MS-DOS command:

       C:\> GZIP -D BARE.GZ

  which will uncompress bare.gz and leave you with the file bare. You
  must similarly uncompress the rootdisk image. For example, if you are
  using the rootdisk color144.gz, issue the command:

       C:\> GZIP -D COLOR144.GZ

  which will uncompress the file and leave you with color144.

  Next, you must have two high-density MS-DOS formatted floppies.  (They
  must be of the same type; that is, if your boot floppy drive is a 3.5"
  drive, both floppies must be high-density 3.5" disks.) You will use
  RAWRITE.EXE to write the boot and rootdisk images to the floppies.

  For example, if you're using the bare.gz bootdisk, use the command:

       C:\> RAWRITE

  Answer the prompts for the name of the file to write (such as BARE-
  BOOT) and the floppy to write it to (such as A:). RAWRITE will copy
  the file, block-by-block, directly to the floppy. Also use RAWRITE for
  the root disk image (such as COLOR144). When you're done, you'll have
  two floppies: one containing the boot disk, the other containing the
  root disk. Note that these two floppies will no longer be readable by
  MS-DOS (they are ``Linux format'' floppies, in some sense).

  Be sure that you're using brand-new, error-free floppies. The floppies
  must have no bad blocks on them.

  Note that you do not need to be running MS-DOS in order to install
  Slackware. However, running MS-DOS makes it easier to create the boot
  and root floppies, and it makes it easier to install the software (as
  you can install directly from an MS-DOS partition on your system). If
  you are not running MS-DOS on your system, you can use someone else's
  MS-DOS system just to create the floppies, and install from there.

  It is not necessary to use GZIP.EXE and RAWRITE.EXE under MS-DOS to
  create the boot and root floppies, either. You can use the gzip and dd
  commands on a UNIX system to do the same job.  (For this, you will
  need a UNIX workstation with a floppy drive, of course.) For example,
  on a Sun workstation with the floppy drive on device /dev/rfd0, you
  can use the commands:

       $ gunzip bare.gz
       $ dd if=bare of=/dev/rfd0 obs=18k

  You must provide the appropriate block size argument (the obs argu-
  ment) on some workstations (e.g., Suns) or this will fail. If you have
  problems the man page for dd will be instructive.  Preparing for hard drive installation

  If you're planning on installing the Slackware software directly from
  the hard drive (which is much faster and more reliable than a floppy
  installation), you will need an MS-DOS partition on the system that
  you're installing Slackware to. (That is, you must already be running
  MS-DOS on the system.)

  To prepare for hard drive installation, simply create a directory on
  the hard drive to store the Slackware files. For example,


  will create the directory C:\SLACKWAR to hold the Slackware files.
  Under this directory, you should create the subdirectories A1, A2, and
  so on, for each disk set that you downloaded. All of the files from
  the A1 disk should go into the directory SLACKWAR\A1, and so forth.

  Now you're ready to go on and install the software; skip to the
  section ``Installing the Software''.  Preparing for floppy installation

  If you wish to install Slackware from floppies instead of the hard
  drive, you'll need to have one blank, MS-DOS formatted floppy for each
  Slackware disk that you downloaded. These disks must be high-density

  The A disk set (disks A1 through A3) may be either 3.5" or 5.25"
  floppies. However, the rest of the disk sets must be 3.5" disks.
  Therefore, if you only have a 5.25" floppy drive, you'll need to
  borrow a 3.5" drive from someone in order to install disk sets other
  than A. (Or, you can install from the hard drive, as explained in the
  previous section.)

  To make the disks, simply copy the files from each Slackware directory
  onto an MS-DOS formatted floppy, using the MS-DOS COPY command. As so:

       C:\> COPY A1\*.* A:

  will copy the contents of the A1 disk to the floppy in drive A:.  You
  should repeat this for each disk that you downloaded.

  You do not need to modify or uncompress the files on the disks in any
  way; you merely need to copy them to MS-DOS floppies. The Slackware
  installation procedure takes care of uncompressing the files for you.

  4.  Installing the Software

  In this section we'll describe how to prepare your system for
  installing Slackware, and finally how to go about installing it.

  4.1.  Repartitioning

  On most systems, the hard drive is already dedicated to partitions for
  MS-DOS, OS/2, and so on.  You need to resize these partitions in order
  to make space for Linux.

  A partition is just a section of the hard drive set aside for a
  particular operating system to use. If you only have MS-DOS installed,
  your hard drive probably has just one partition, entirely for MS-DOS.
  To use Linux, however, you'll need to repartition the drive, so that
  you have one partition for MS-DOS, and one (or more) for Linux.

  Partitions come in three flavors: primary, extended, and logical.
  Briefly, primary partitions are one of the four main partitions on
  your drive. However, if you wish to have more than four partitions per
  drive, you need to create an extended partition, which can contain
  many logical partitions.  You don't store data directly on an extended
  partition---it is used only as a container for logical partitions.
  Data is stored only on either primary or logical partitions.

  To put this another way, most people use only primary partitions.
  However, if you need more than four partitions on a drive, you create
  an extended partition. Logical partitions are then created on top of
  the extended partition, and there you have it---more than four
  partitions per drive.

  Note that you can easily install Linux on the second drive on your
  system (known as D: to MS-DOS). You simply specify the appropriate
  device name when creating Linux partitions. This is described in
  detail below.

  Back to repartitioning your drive: The problem with resizing
  partitions is that there is no way to do it (easily) without deleting
  the data on those partitions.  Therefore, you will need to make a full
  backup of your system before repartitioning. In order to resize a
  partition, we simply delete the partition(s), and re-create them with
  smaller sizes.

  NOTE: There is a non-destructive disk repartitioner available for MS-
  DOS, called FIPS. Look on in the directory
  /pub/Linux/system/Install. With FIPS, a disk optimizer (such as Norton
  Speed Disk), and a little bit of luck, you should be able to resize
  MS-DOS partitions without destroying the data on them.  It's still
  suggested that you make a full backup before attempting this.

  If you're not using FIPS, however, the classic way to modify
  partitions is with the program FDISK. For example, let's say that you
  have an 80 meg hard drive, dedicated to MS-DOS. You'd like to split it
  in half---40 megs for MS-DOS and 40 megs for Linux. In order to do
  this, you run FDISK under MS-DOS, delete the 80 meg MS-DOS partition,
  and re-create a 40 meg MS-DOS partition in its place. You can then
  format the new partition and reinstall your MS-DOS software from
  backups. 40 megabytes of the drive is left empty. Later, you create
  Linux partitions on the unused portion of the drive.

  In short, you should do the following to resize MS-DOS partitions with

  1. Make a full backup of your system.

  2. Create an MS-DOS bootable floppy, using a command such as

       FORMAT /S A:

  3. Copy the files FDISK.EXE and FORMAT.COM to this floppy, as well as
     any other utilities that you need. (For example, utilities to
     recover your system from backup.)

  4. Boot the MS-DOS system floppy.

  5. Run FDISK, possibly specifying the drive to modify (such as C: or

  6. Use the FDISK menu options to delete the partitions which you wish
     to resize. This will destroy all data on the affected partitions.

  7. Use the FDISK menu options to re-create those partitions, with
     smaller sizes.

  8. Exit FDISK and re-format the new partitions with the FORMAT

  9. Restore the original files from backup.

  Note that MS-DOS FDISK will give you an option to create a ``logical
  DOS drive''. A logical DOS drive is just a logical partition on your
  hard drive. You can install Linux on a logical partition, but you
  don't want to create that logical partition with MS-DOS fdisk. So, if
  you're currently using a logical DOS drive, and want to install Linux
  in its place, you should delete the logical drive with MS-DOS FDISK,
  and (later) create a logical partition for Linux in its place.

  The mechanism used to repartition for OS/2 and other operating systems
  is similar. See the documentation for those operating systems for

  4.2.  Creating partitions for Linux

  After repartitioning your drive, you need to create partitions for
  Linux. Before describing how to do that, we'll talk about partitions
  and filesystems under Linux.

  4.2.1.  Filesystems and swap space

  Linux requires at least one partition, for the root filesystem, which
  will hold the Linux software itself.

  You can think of a filesystem as a partition formatted for Linux.
  Filesystems are used to hold files. Every system must have a root
  filesystem, at least. However, many users prefer to use multiple
  filesystems---one for each major part of the directory tree. For
  example, you may wish to create a separate filesystem to hold all
  files under the /usr directory.  (Note that on UNIX systems, forward
  slashes are used to delimit directories, not backslashes as with MS-
  DOS.) In this case you have both a root filesystem, and a /usr

  Each filesystem requires its own partition. Therefore, if you're using
  both root and /usr filesystems, you'll need to create two Linux

  In addition, most users create a swap partition, which is used for
  virtual RAM. If you have, say, 4 megabytes of memory on your machine,
  and a 10-megabyte swap partition, as far as Linux is concerned you
  have 14 megabytes of virtual memory.

  When using swap space, Linux moves unused pages of memory out to disk,
  allowing you to run more applications at once on your system.
  However, because swapping is often slow, it's no replacement for real
  physical RAM. But applications that require a great deal of memory
  (such as the X Window System) often rely on swap space if you don't
  have enough physical RAM.

  Nearly all Linux users employ a swap partition.  If you have 4
  megabytes of RAM or less, a swap partition is required to install the
  software. It is strongly recommended that you have a swap partition
  anyway, unless you have a great amount of physical RAM.

  The size of your swap partition depends on how much virtual memory you
  need. It's often suggested that you have at least 16 megabytes of
  virtual memory total. Therefore, if you have 8 megs of physical RAM,
  you might want to create an 8-megabyte swap partition.  Note that swap
  partitions can be no larger than 16 megabytes in size. Therefore, if
  you need more than 16 megs of swap, you must create multiple swap
  partitions. You may have up to 8 swap partitions in all.

  4.2.2.  Booting the installation disk

  The first step is to boot the Slackware bootdisk.  After the system
  boots, you will see the message:

       Please remove the boot kernel disk from your floppy drive,
       insert a disk to be loaded into the ramdisk, and press
       [enter] to continue.

  At this point you should remove the bootdisk from the drive and insert
  the rootdisk. Then press enter to go on.

  The rootdisk will be loaded into memory, and you should be presented
  with a login prompt. Login as ``root''.

       darkstar login: root

  Note to IBM PS/1, ValuePoint, and ThinkPad Users: If you use an IBM
  PS/1, ValuePoint, or ThinkPad machine, the system will not recognize
  your hard drive when you boot the Slackware bootdisk. This is because
  these machines do not store drive geometry information in the CMOS (as
  they should) and you have to specify the geometry by hand when
  booting. (Later you can get around this by installing the LILO
  software, which allows you to boot Linux from the hard drive.)

  You must use a bootdisk other than ``bare'' for this to work.  I
  suggest using scsi.gz. While booting the bootdisk, hold down the left
  shift key. You will be presented with a boot menu which will describe
  how to specify your hard drive geometry (that is, the number of
  cylinders, heads, and sectors per track) for your drive using the hd
  boot option. You can get information on your drive geometry from your
  hard drive manual or by running MS-DOS FDISK.

  4.2.3.  Using fdisk

  To create partitions, you'll use the Linux fdisk program.  After
  logging in as root, run the command


  where  is the name of the drive that you wish to create Linux
  partitions on. Hard drive device names are:

  o  /dev/hda First IDE drive

  o  /dev/hdb Second IDE drive

  o  /dev/sda First SCSI drive

  o  /dev/sdb Second SCSI drive

     For example, to create Linux partitions on the first SCSI drive in
     your system, use the command

       fdisk /dev/sda

  If you use fdisk without an argument, it will assume /dev/hda.

  To create Linux partitions on the second drive on your system, simply
  specify either /dev/hdb (for IDE drives) or /dev/sdb (for SCSI drives)
  when running fdisk.

  Your Linux partitions don't all have to be on the same drive.  You
  might want to create your root filesystem partition on /dev/hda and
  your swap partition on /dev/hdb, for example. In order to do so just
  run fdisk once for each drive.

  Use of fdisk is simple. The command ``p'' displays your current
  partition table. ``n'' creates a new partition, and ``d'' deletes a

  To Linux, partitions are given a name based on the drive which they
  belong to. For example, the first partition on the drive /dev/hda is
  /dev/hda1, the second is /dev/hda2, and so on. If you have any logical
  partitions, they are numbered starting with /dev/hda5, /dev/hda6 and
  so on up.

  NOTE: You should not create or delete partitions for operating systems
  other than Linux with Linux fdisk. That is, don't create or delete MS-
  DOS partitions with this version of fdisk; use MS-DOS's version of
  FDISK instead. If you try to create MS-DOS partitions with Linux
  fdisk, chances are MS-DOS will not recognize the partition and not
  boot correctly.

  Here's an example of using fdisk. Here, we have a single MS-DOS
  partition using 61693 blocks on the drive, and the rest of the drive
  is free for Linux. (Under Linux, one block is 1024 bytes. Therefore,
  61693 blocks is about 61 megabytes.)  We will create two Linux
  partitions: one for swap, and one for the root filesystem.

  First, we use the ``p'' command to display the current partition
  table.  As you can see, /dev/hda1 (the first partition on /dev/hda) is
  a DOS partition of 61693 blocks.

  Command (m for help):   p
  Disk /dev/hda: 16 heads, 38 sectors, 683 cylinders
  Units = cylinders of 608 * 512 bytes

       Device Boot  Begin   Start     End  Blocks   Id  System
    /dev/hda1   *       1       1     203   61693    6  DOS 16-bit >=32M

  Command (m for help):

  Next, we use the ``n'' command to create a new partition. The Linux
  root partition will be 80 megs in size.

  Command (m for help):  n
  Command action
      e   extended
      p   primary partition (1-4)

  Here we're being asked if we want to create an extended or primary
  partition. In most cases you want to use primary partitions, unless
  you need more than four partitions on a drive. See the section
  ``Repartitioning'', above, for more information.

  Partition number (1-4): 2
  First cylinder (204-683):  204
  Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (204-683): +80M

  The first cylinder should be the cylinder AFTER where the last
  partition left off. In this case, /dev/hda1 ended on cylinder 203, so
  we start the new partition at cylinder 204.

  As you can see, if we use the notation ``+80M'', it specifies a
  partition of 80 megs in size. Likewise, the notation ``+80K'' would
  specify an 80 kilobyte partition, and ``+80'' would specify just an 80
  byte partition.

  Warning: Linux cannot currently use 33090 sectors of this partition

  If you see this warning, you can ignore it. It is left over from an
  old restriction that Linux filesystems could only be 64 megs in size.
  However, with newer filesystem types, that is no longer the case...
  partitions can now be up to 4 terabytes in size.

  Next, we create our 10 megabyte swap partition, /dev/hda3.

  Command (m for help): n
  Command action
      e   extended
      p   primary partition (1-4)

  Partition number (1-4): 3
  First cylinder (474-683):  474
  Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (474-683):  +10M

  Again, we display the contents of the partition table. Be sure to
  write down the information here, especially the size of each partition
  in blocks. You need this information later.

  Command (m for help): p
  Disk /dev/hda: 16 heads, 38 sectors, 683 cylinders
  Units = cylinders of 608 * 512 bytes

       Device Boot  Begin   Start     End  Blocks   Id  System
    /dev/hda1   *       1       1     203   61693    6  DOS 16-bit >=32M
    /dev/hda2         204     204     473   82080   83  Linux native
    /dev/hda3         474     474     507   10336   83  Linux native

  Note that the Linux swap partition (here, /dev/hda3) has type ``Linux
  native''. We need to change the type of the swap partition to ``Linux
  swap'' so that the installation program will recognize it as such. In
  order to do this, use the fdisk ``t'' command:

  Command (m for help): t
  Partition number (1-4): 3
  Hex code (type L to list codes): 82

  If you use ``L'' to list the type codes, you'll find that 82 is the
  type corresponding to Linux swap.

  To quit fdisk and save the changes to the partition table, use the
  ``w'' command. To quit fdisk WITHOUT saving changes, use the ``q''

  After quitting fdisk, the system may tell you to reboot to make sure
  that the changes took effect. In general there is no reason to reboot
  after using fdisk---the version of fdisk on the Slackware distribution
  is smart enough to update the partitions without rebooting.

  4.3.  Preparing the swap space

  If you have 4 megabytes of RAM (or less) in your machine, you need to
  create a swap partition (using fdisk) and enable it for use before
  installing the software. Here, we describe how to format and enable
  your swap partition(s).

  If you have more than 4 megs of RAM, you need only create your
  partition(s)---it's not necessary to format and enable them before
  installing the software.  In this case you can skip down to the
  section ``Installing the Software''.

  If you get any ``out of memory'' errors during the installation
  procedure you should create a swap partition and enable it as
  described here.

  To prepare the swap space for use, we use the mkswap command.  It
  takes the form:

       mkswap -c < partition> < size>

  where < partition> is the partition name, such as /dev/hda3, and 
  is the size of the partition in blocks.

  For example, if you created the swap partition /dev/hda3 of size 10336
  blocks, use the command

  mkswap -c /dev/hda3 10336

  The -c option tells mkswap to check for bad blocks on the partition
  when preparing the swap space. If you see any ``read_intr'' error mes-
  sages during the mkswap operation, this means that bad blocks were
  found (and flagged). So you can ignore these errors.

  To enable swapping on the new device, use the command

       swapon < partition>

  For example, for our swap space on /dev/hda3, we use

       swapon /dev/hda3

  We're now swapping with about 10 megabytes more virtual memory.

  You should execute mkswap and swapon for each swap partition that you

  4.4.  Installing the software

  Installing the Slackware release is very simple; it's almost
  automatic. You use the setup command, which guides you through a
  series of menus which allow you to specify the means of installation,
  the partitions to use, and so forth.  Almost everything is automatic.

  Here, we're not going to document many of the specifics of using
  setup, because it changes from time to time. setup is very self-
  explanatory; it contains its own documentation. Just to give you an
  idea of what it's like, however, we'll describe what most
  installations are like using setup.

  Before you begin, be sure that you have a high-density MS-DOS
  formatted floppy on hand. You will use this floppy to create a Linux
  boot diskette.

  After running fdisk (and, perhaps, mkswap and swapon as described
  above), issue the command

       # setup

  This will present you with a colourful menu with various options such
  as ``Addswap'' (to set up your swap space), ``Source'' (to specify the
  source of the software to install, such as floppy or hard drive),
  ``Target'' (to specify where to install the software), and so on.

  In general, you should go through the menu commands in the following

  1. Addswap. If you created a swap partition (using fdisk), use the
     addswap menu option to tell the system about it.  This option will
     present you with a list of possible swap partitions; just type in
     the name of the swap partition(s) that you wish to use (such as
     /dev/hda3). The system will then ask you if you want to format the
     swap partition, which you should do unless you already ran mkswap
     and swapon on it.  That is, you should format the swap partition
     unless you already formatted and enabled it by hand as described in
     the previous section.

  2. Source. This menu option lets you specify the source for the
     software to install. You can select several means of installation,
     such as from floppy or from hard drive. If you are installing from
     floppies, the system will ask you which floppy drive to use. If you
     are installing from hard drive, the system will ask you what
     partition the files are stored on, and what directory they are in.

     For example, if you are installing from an MS-DOS partition on your
     hard drive, and the Slackware files are under the directory
     C:\SLACKWAR, you should enter the name of the MS-DOS partition
     (such as /dev/hda1) and the name of the directory (such as
     /slackwar). Note that you should use forward slashes (/), not
     backslashes (\), in the directory name.

     There are other means of installation, such as CD-ROM. These should
     be self-explanatory as well.

  3. Target. This menu item lets you specify what partition(s) to
     install the software on. The system will display a list of possible
     partitions. First you will be asked to enter the name of the root
     partition, such as /dev/hda2. You will be asked if you want to
     format the partition; unless you are installing on a partition
     previously formatted for Linux you should do so. You should use the
     Second Extended Filesystem (ext2fs) type for the partition.

     You will also be given a chance to use additional partitions for
     different parts of the directory tree. For example, if you created
     a separate partition for the /usr filesystem, you should enter the
     name of that partition and the directory that it corresponds to
     (/usr) when asked.

  4. Disksets. This option allows you to specify the disksets you wish
     to install. Use the arrow keys to scroll through the list; pressing
     the spacebar selects or deselects a set. Press return when you're
     done selecting disk sets.

     You may wish to only install a minimal system at this time. That's
     fine. Only the A diskset is required. After you have installed the
     software you may run setup to install other disksets.

  5. Install. After setting up all of the parameters above, you're ready
     to install the software. First the system will ask you what type of
     prompting to use; you should use the ``normal'' prompting method
     (unless you're an expert and have modified the installation
     tagfiles in some way).

     The system will simply go through each disk set and install the
     software. For each software package, a dialog box will be displayed
     describing the software. Software packages that are required will
     be installed automatically. For optional software packages you will
     be given the option of either installing or not installing the
     package. (If you don't wish to install a certain package now, you
     can always use setup on your system to install it later).

     While the software is installing, watch out for error messages that
     may be displayed. The most common error that you're likely to run
     into is ``device full'', which means that you have run out of space
     on your Linux partitions. Unfortunately, the Slackware installation
     procedure is not quite smart enough to detect this, and will
     attempt to continue installing the software regardless. If you get
     any kind of error messages during the installation procedure, you
     may wish to break out of the installation program (using Ctrl-C) to
     record them. The only solution for the ``device full'' problem is
     to re-create your Linux partitions with different sizes, or attempt
     to reinstall the software without several of the optional software
  4.5.  After installation

  After installation is complete, and if all goes well, you will be
  given the option of creating a ``standard boot disk'', which you can
  use to boot your newly-installed Linux system. For this you will need
  a blank, high-density MS-DOS formatted diskette of the type that you
  boot with on your system. Simply insert the disk when prompted and a
  boot diskette will be created.

  You will also be given the chance to install LILO on your hard drive.
  LILO (which stands for LInux LOader) is a program that will allow you
  to boot Linux (as well as other operating systems, such as MS-DOS)
  from your hard drive. If you wish to do this, just select the
  appropriate menu option and follow the prompts.

  If you are using OS/2's Boot Manager, the menu will include an option
  for configuring LILO for use with the Boot Manager, so that you can
  boot Linux from it.

  Note that this automated LILO installation procedure is not foolproof;
  there are situations in which this can fail. Be sure that you have a
  way to boot MS-DOS, Linux, and other operating systems from floppy
  before you attempt to install LILO. If the LILO installation fails you
  will be able to boot your system from floppy and correct the problem.

  More information on configuring LILO is given below.

  The postinstallation procedure will also take you through several menu
  items allowing you to configure your system. This includes specifying
  your modem and mouse device, as well as your time zone. Just follow
  the menu options.

  4.6.  Booting your new system

  If everything went as planned, you should be able to boot your Linux
  boot floppy (not the Slackware installation floppy, but the floppy
  created after installing the software). Or, if you installed LILO, you
  should be able to boot from the hard drive.  After booting, login as
  root. Congratulations! You have your very own Linux system.

  If you are booting using LILO, try holding down shift or control
  during boot. This will present you with a boot prompt; press tab to
  see a list of options. In this way you can boot Linux, MS-DOS, or
  whatever directly from LILO.

  After booting your system and logging in as root, one of the first
  things you should do is create an account for yourself.  The adduser
  command may be used for this purpose. For example,

       # adduser
       Login to add (^C to quit): ebersol
       Full Name: Norbert Ebersol
       GID [100]: 100
       UID [501]: 501
       Home Directory [/home/ebersol]: /home/ebersol
       Shell [/bin/bash]: /bin/bash
       Password [ebersol]: new.password

       Information for new user [ebersol]:
       Home directory: [/home/ebersol]  Shell: [/bin/bash]
       Password: [new.password]  UID: [502] GID:[100]
       Is this correct? [y/n]: y

  adduser will prompt you for various parameters, such as the username,
  full name, GID (group ID), UID (user ID), and so on. For the most part
  you can use the defaults. If you're unfamiliar with creating users on
  a UNIX system, I strongly suggest getting a book on UNIX systems
  administration. It will help you greatly in setting up and using your
  new system.

  You can now login as the new user. You can use the keys Alt-F1 through
  Alt-F8 to switch between virtual consoles, which will allow you to
  login multiple times from the console. The passwd command can be used
  to set the passwords on your new accounts; you should set a password
  for root and any new users that you create.

  Also, the hostname of your machine is set at boot time in the file
  /etc/rc.d/rc.M. You should edit this file (as root) to change the
  hostname of the machine.  You should edit the lines in this file which
  run the commands hostname or hostname_notcp. (The default hostname is
  darkstar.) You may also wish to edit the domainname commands in this
  file, if you are on a TCP/IP network.

  Obviously, there are many more things to setup and configure. A good
  book on UNIX systems administration should help. (I suggest Essential
  Systems Administration from O'Reilly and Associates.)  You will pick
  these things up as time goes by. You should read various other Linux
  HOWTOs, such as the NET-2-HOWTO and Printing-HOWTO, for information on
  other configuration tasks.

  After that, the system is all yours... have fun!

  5.  Configuring LILO

  LILO is a boot loader, which can be used to select either Linux, MS-
  DOS, or some other operating system at boot time. If you install LILO
  as the primary boot loader, it will handle the first-stage booting
  process for all operating systems on your drive. This works well if
  MS-DOS is the only other operating system that you have installed.
  However, you might be running OS/2, which has it's own Boot Manager.
  In this case, you want OS/2's Boot Manager to be the primary boot
  loader, and use LILO just to boot Linux (as the secondary boot

  The Slackware installation procedure allows you to install and
  configure LILO. However, this method doesn't seem to be smart enough
  to handle several peculiar situations. It might be easier in some
  cases to configure LILO by hand.

  In order to set up LILO for your system, just edit the file
  /etc/lilo/config. Below we present an example of a LILO configuration
  file, where the Linux root partition is on /dev/hda2, and MS-DOS is
  installed on /dev/hdb1 (on the second hard drive).

  # Tell LILO to install itself as the primary boot loader on /dev/hda.
  boot = /dev/hda
  # The boot image to install; you probably shouldn't change this
  install = /etc/lilo/boot.b
  # Do some optimization. Doesn't work on all systems.

  # The stanza for booting Linux.
  image = /vmlinuz       # The kernel is in /vmlinuz
    label = linux        # Give it the name "linux"
    root = /dev/hda2     # Use /dev/hda2 as the root filesystem
    vga = ask            # Prompt for VGA mode

  # The stanza for booting MS-DOS
  other = /dev/hdb1      # This is the MS-DOS partition
    label = msdos        # Give it the name "msdos"
    table = /dev/hdb     # The partition table for the second drive

  Once you have edited the /etc/lilo/config file, run /etc/lilo/lilo as
  root. This will install LILO on your drive. Note that you must rerun
  /etc/lilo/lilo anytime that you recompile your kernel (something that
  you don't need to worry about just now, but keep it in mind).

  You can now reboot your system from the hard drive. By default LILO
  will boot the operating system listed first in the configuration file,
  which in this case is Linux. In order to bring up a boot menu, in
  order to select another operating system, hold down shift or ctrl
  while the system boots; you should see a prompt such as


  Here, enter either the name of the operating system to boot (given by
  the label line in the configuration file; in this case, either linux
  or msdos), or press tab to get a list.

  Now let's say that you want to use LILO as the secondary boot loader;
  if you want to boot Linux from OS/2's Boot Manager, for example.  In
  order to boot a Linux partition from OS/2 Boot Manager, unfortunately,
  you must create the partition using OS/2's FDISK (not Linux's), and
  format the partition as FAT or HPFS, so that OS/2 knows about it.
  (That's IBM for you.)

  In order to have LILO boot Linux from OS/2 BM, you only want to
  install LILO on your Linux root filesystem (in the above example,
  /dev/hda2). In this case, your LILO config file should look something

       boot = /dev/hda2
       install = /etc/lilo/boot.b

       image = /vmlinuz
         label = linux
         root = /dev/hda2
         vga = ask

  Note the change in the boot line. After running /etc/lilo/lilo you
  should be able to add the Linux partition to Boot Manager. This
  mechanism should work for boot loaders used by other operating systems
  as well.

  6.  Miscellaneous

  I don't like to be biased towards the Slackware release, however, in
  order to document multiple releases of Linux, this file would be much,
  much longer. It is simpler and more coherent to cover the specific
  instructions for a single release of Linux. The book Linux
  Installation and Getting Started currently includes general
  installation instructions which should be applicable to ``any''
  distribution of Linux. However, because the installation procedures
  are so varied, covering them all would be very confusing both to
  myself and to the reader.

  The basic concepts in this document still hold, no matter what release
  of Linux you choose. For example, all releases require you to run
  fdisk, and all of them (to my knowledge) include some kind of
  installation menu similar to the setup program.  If you choose to use
  a release of Linux other than Slackware, the READMEs and installation
  instructions that come with that release should be easy to understand
  in the context of the material presented here.

  If you would like a more complete discussion of Linux installation
  (instead of the "quick" examples given here), read the book Linux
  Installation and Getting Started, from in
  /pub/Linux/docs/LDP.  This book includes a complete discussion of how
  to obtain and install Linux, as well as a basic UNIX and systems
  administration tutorial for new users.

  Please mail me at if any part of this document is
  confusing or incorrect. I depend on feedback from readers in order to
  maintain this document! I also like to help answer questions about
  Linux installation, if you have any.

  I'd like to thank Patrick Volkerding for his work on the Slackware
  distribution and assistance in preparing this document.

  Best of luck with your new Linux system!

  Cheers, mdw