Drupal VS. Mambo

Submitted by Editor on Fri, 01/12/2006 - 16:43.

Originally written for Xaneon Development by Arto Bendiken

Now, when making any comparison such as this, the first thing to realize is that it’s unlikely that one tool will fit every need and purpose. To an extent, comparing Mambo and Drupal is comparing apples to oranges. They are two very different systems, with widely differing goals and intended audiences. They just both happen to fit under the convenient heading of “content management systems”, meaning you can create decent websites with either one of them.

Also, the people on our team probably don’t represent the broad cross-section of Mambo users out there; our needs don’t necessarily fit their needs. We are. for the most part, people with strong technical backgrounds. Some of our reasons for abandoning Mambo may not resonate at all with the “average user”, if there is such a person. Unless you are a programmer, or have an equally deep technical understanding, take everything we say with a grain of salt.

Let’s start off with some background: we’ve used Mambo for a long time, and we’ve written a multitude of components, modules and mambots for various versions of Mambo, as well as contributed patches and improvements to existing Mambo add-ons. Most of our own projects were coded for internal purposes or limited distribution only, but some, like our popular XE2 component, which provided Search Engine Friendly (SEF) URLs for Mambo, were released to the Mambo community under open-source terms.

It was only recently, in the last few months, that we “became aware” of Drupal and overcame the initial threshold of trying it out. Funnily enough, this was mostly to steal some good ideas from their SEF implementation; instead, Drupal ended stealing us away from Mambo. So it goes sometimes. Read on for what caused us to abandon all the time and effort we had invested into the Mambo platform…

General Comparison

Mambo has, for a long time, been ahead of competing CMS projects with regards to marketing. Mambo’s public image is pretty, appealing and very marketable to management. Mambo has no doubt benefited from the sponsoring company and trademark owner Miro’s advertising dollars in this regard.

Of course, this was all before the recent hostile project takeover by Miro; while there are people who will argue that any publicity is good publicity, we’ll just have to sit and see how this particular move will play out.

Drupal, in contrast, has been a community project from the start. There’s been no single strong corporate sponsor (though that’s changing with entities such as CivicSpace throwing their weight behind the project) to hold sway over the project, and the overall image has been somewhat less glitzy and more downplayed.

Where Mambo Shines

Mambo is certainly “easy on the eyes”: most people react very favorably to seeing the administration interface for the first time. Another aspect where Mambo is definitely ahead of the game is in installation friendliness, as well as add-on management (installation and uninstallation of components, modules, etc.)

In comparison, Drupal requires one to manually unzip add-ons on the server, possibly create the necessary SQL tables from supplied scripts, and there is no friendly installation “wizard” to guide you through first-time installation. (This is all evolving, though; it shouldn’t be many months before there is a comprehensive installation system available in Drupal.)

If the above points are very important considerations to you, as they certainly might be to less technically-savvy users, then you may not really benefit from this article. As stated, our team hails from a quite different user segment.

Technical & Architectural Differences

Now we come to the real meat of the matter. During our sojourn into the dark art known as Mambo SEF, we’ve necessarily become quite familiar with the internal workings of Mambo. To be candidly honest, it’s not exactly impressive.

Mambo is a very limiting design. Pretty much the only “hook” into Mambo’s core, to allow any significant third-party extension to Mambo’s base functionality without modifying the core files, is the SEF support. (A cynical person might argue that even this “hook” exists only for the benefit of a certain commercial SEF extension developed by a former core developer.)

When we originally designed Xaneon Extensions for Mambo, the most interesting aspect for us was to provide a general “core extension” framework which would allow multiple components to utilize XE2 to tap into the core without disturbing the SEF support or interface. Essentially, a “multiplexing” of the one and only core hook, for the benefit of all. XE2’s own code is very extensible, allowing other developers or site administrators to override functionality as they need to. Hopefully someone else will take this idea, or even our code, and run with it.

Drupal’s architecture, in comparison to Mambo’s, is like a breath of fresh air. First off, reading through the core code was a pleasant experience: it’s not only cleanly designed, and with extensibility constantly in mind; it’s also well commented and documented. The design is incredibly flexible from the view point of an add-on developer coming from Mambo: there is no need for separate “components”, “modules” and “mambots”, as one Drupal module can perform the tasks of each, and much more besides. There is a general-purpose, all-pervasive “hook” system in place, allowing modules to override functionality in the entire lifecycle of content objects (known as “nodes” in Drupal), as well as perform actions at certain points in the handling of page requests.

Application Programming Interface

In Drupal there is actually an API for modules to use; this is a very important point. One reason for the inconsistent quality of Mambo components, and the proliferation of non-standard user interfaces, is no doubt that there are no standards, or at least no significant high-level programming interface that would facilitate the creation of third-party add-ons. Essentially, to create a Mambo add-on, one needs to start from scratch and reinvent the wheel every time. It gets frustrating after a while, even though the developer may learn to refactor and reuse some of his code.

Nowhere are the above-mentioned design considerations more visible than in two add-on features we consider absolutely essential for both Mambo and Drupal: internationalization (i18n) and search engine friendly (SEF) URL addresses. Both require fairly low-level “hooks” into core functionality to function.


There is i18n support available in both systems, but in both Mambo and Drupal some patches are required to the core; this in our opinion is inexcusable, in both cases. Only unilingual users and websites would not need i18n, and those kind of websites are a luxury on the European side of the Big Pond, at least.

However, compare the patching required, and how the add-on is implemented in each case: that is, in Mambelfish versus Drupal’s i18n module. In such a comparison, Drupal’s clean design shines through very favorably: the i18n module is much less of a “dirty hack” than what’s required for Mambo, and builds upon the superb localization feature of Drupal. In fact, Drupal’s i18n patch is only about two dozen one-line code additions, and would be trivial to integrate into the Drupal core in a future release, should Drupal’s project leadership decide to do so.

More so, now having lots of practical experience building multilingual sites with both Mambo and Drupal, Drupal’s i18n works very well and as it is intended to, and feels fully integrated into the system, not “hackish” in any way.

This is not, however, intended to knock down the developer of Mambelfish; having reviewed the code and contributed patches to Mambelfish, we think he’s done pretty much the best job that’s possible in the constraints Mambo’s architecture places on him, and should rather be commended for his ingenuity in providing an adequate solution to a difficult problem.

Search Engine Friendly URLs

This is a subject that has become intimately familiar to us. One of our earliest requirements for a CMS was adequate support for free-form, human-readable URLs. At the time we started to use Mambo, there really wasn’t any solution to this aside from some hacks shared in the Mambo forum, and a commercial SEF add-on for Mambo developed by one of the core developers.

To solve the problem, we wrote Xaneon Alias Manager 1.0, which allowed us to define friendly URLs manually for all of Mambo’s content pages. While it worked quite well, and hundreds of websites are still using XAM today, it was a labor-intensive solution for larger sites. Eventually, out of dissatisfaction with having to maintain the friendly URLs manually grew Xaneon Extensions 2.0 (XE2) for Mambo, which introduced automated friendly URLs for both content items and component-generated paths.

Unfortunately, while achieving a good measure of automation, the component’s complexity skyrocketed. Mambo itself is simply not designed for friendly URLs, and what’s worse, most of the third-party components for Mambo don’t take any measures to even try to support friendly URLs. As a result, writing a “perfect” SEF solution for Mambo is an incredibly labor-intensive task. We welcome anyone to try it as a Sunday-afternoon exercise…

Over the last year, many people have privately expressed their concerns to us about the fact that a Mambo core developer is charging for a SEF component that should, in their view, be integrated in Mambo’s core. From our own “inside perspective”, we can, on one hand, understand this developer charging for his component, since we know the work involved in developing a comprehensive Mambo SEF solution. (Come to think of it, charging for ours might have motivated us to actually finish it.) On the other hand, we must agree that Mambo should come with significantly better SEF support out-of-the-box, and that the current situation is curious, to say the least. We do believe the (former) core team to be in serious error on this matter.

Fortunately, the situation with Drupal is much better. SEF support, on a level comparable to our Alias Manager component, is fully integrated into the Drupal core, and there is an open-source add-on available which adds automated friendly URLs in a manner comparable to XE2. There are a few small convenience features we are considering implementing and contributing, but already Drupal’s SEF support is more integrated and usable than we could ever achieve in Mambo without patches to the core. It simply works as intended, and the code and solution is elegant.

Multiple Sites with One Installation

Imagine if you could set up several sites with just one installation; all installed add-ons and themes would be instantly available for use in all these sites, and any security patches you need to apply (after all, all software has bugs, as we know all too well), need only be applied once.

And, to make it all even sweeter, imagine if you selectively share the configuration settings and databases tables between these sites so that, for instance, you could share user accounts between some sites, or maintain only one large content archive, selectively using and sharing articles between your sites. Wouldn’t this be great?

Guess what. Drupal does all of the above, and it works perfectly. It’s not too bad to set up, and once done, saves a bunch of time and effort.

We figured out a way to do most of the above in Mambo as well, since XE2 has some access to the relevant PHP variables before handing control over to Mambo’s core. The multi-site support in current beta versions of XE2 is buggy, but the concept should be sound. It would take a lot of work to bring it up to Drupal’s current level, though.

Fine-Grained Access Control

As far as access controls go, this is simply a no-contest. We all know how lacking Mambo’s access control scheme is; hopefully there will one day be an improvement to it.

Drupal allows us to define arbitary roles (for instance, “moderator”) for users, and assign permissions to these roles on a module-by-module basis (for example, one selection is “moderate comments”). It’s intuitive, very fine-grained and very flexible. There is even a module available that will automatically handle giving a user a new role after they’ve paid for a subscription with PayPal, as well as many other add-ons that allow true micromanagement of the website’s access control policies, should that be necessary.

Other Considerations

Let’s just say the list of goodies Drupal delivers us is pretty long. We haven’t even discussed Drupal’s templating system (keywords: XHTML, CSS, total customizability, and optionally, Smarty) or the unlimited content hierarchies you can create with the built-in Drupal module called, appropriately enough, “taxonomy”.

We could go on for two dozen pages. It wouldn’t be difficult at all. But we don’t need to convince anyone, and our reasons aren’t necessarily reasons why someone else would switch. It would be silly to get religious about something like a content management system. As always, just pick the right tool for the job at hand. For us, that has for now in most cases proven to be Drupal.

In Conclusion

The bottom line is simply that Drupal allows us to be significantly more productive. In our experience, we are able to put together complex sites in a fraction of the time it would have taken us with Mambo. We can use Drupal modules such as Flexinode, which brings to mind some of the power of Lotus Notes, to quickly solve needs that would have cost us a lot of custom programming (or buying a custom component) in Mambo. We can take advantage of Drupal’s excellent templating to produce truly unique-looking sites with not much effort.

This site, xaneon.com, is at the moment still a Mambo installation, running our Xaneon Extensions for Mambo. It’s the last bastion of the old, standing against the coming wave of change. It’s unlikely to hold out much longer, though…

We don’t regret the time we spent with Mambo; we will always have a soft spot for it and appreciate the many friends and acquaintances we made along the way. We sympatize with the current plight of the “true” Mambo core development team and wish them the best of fortunes in their new endeavour. As we’ve stated previously, we might pop in at Open Source Matters from time to time to catch up on how the “rebel Mambo” project is doing. Goodbye, and thanks for all the fish!


Copyright 2006